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Downer E.J.,Trinity College Dublin | Cowley T.R.,Trinity College Dublin | Lyons A.,Trinity College Dublin | Mills K.H.G.,Trinity College Dublin | And 3 more authors.
Neurobiology of Aging | Year: 2010

Age-related cognitive deficits in hippocampus are correlated with neuroinflammatory changes, typified by increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production and microglial activation. We provide evidence that the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-derived mimetic peptide, FG loop (FGL), acts as a novel anti-inflammatory agent. Administration of FGL to aged rats attenuated the increased expression of markers of activated microglia, the increase in pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and the impairment in long-term potentiation (LTP). We report that the age-related increase in microglial activation was accompanied by decreased expression of neuronal CD200, and suggest that the proclivity of FGL to suppress microglial activation is due to its stimulatory effect on neuronal CD200. We demonstrate that FGL enhanced interleukin-4 (IL-4) release from glial cells and IL-4 in turn enhanced neuronal CD200 in vitro. We provide evidence that the increase in CD200 is reliant on IL-4-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signal transduction. These findings provide the first evidence of a role for FGL as an anti-inflammatory agent and identify a mechanism by which FGL controls microglial activation. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Dmytriyeva O.,Institute of Neuroscience and Pharmacology | Pankratova S.,Institute of Neuroscience and Pharmacology | Owczarek S.,Institute of Neuroscience and Pharmacology | Sonn K.,University of Tartu | And 9 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2012

Identification of novel pro-survival factors in the brain is paramount for developing neuroprotective therapies. The multifunctional S100 family proteins have important roles in many human diseases and are also upregulated by brain injury. However, S100 functions in the nervous system remain unclear. Here we show that the S100A4 protein, mostly studied in cancer, is overexpressed in the damaged human and rodent brain and released from stressed astrocytes. Genetic deletion of S100A4 exacerbates neuronal loss after brain trauma or excitotoxicity, increasing oxidative cell damage and downregulating the neuroprotective protein metallothionein I+II. We identify two neurotrophic motifs in S100A4 and show that these motifs are neuroprotective in animal models of brain trauma. Finally, we find that S100A4 rescues neurons via the Janus kinase/STAT pathway and, partially, the interleukin-10 receptor. Our data introduce S100A4 as a therapeutic target in neurodegeneration, and raise the entire S100 family as a potentially important factor in central nervous system injury. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source


Dmytriyeva O.,Institute of Neuroscience and Pharmacology | Klementiev B.,Institute of Neuroscience and Pharmacology | Berezin V.,Institute of Neuroscience and Pharmacology | Bock E.,Institute of Neuroscience and Pharmacology
Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2013

Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200. mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND40 but no effect of prenatal prochloraz exposure on social investigation or acquisition of social-olfactory memory. © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. Source

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