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Tiranti V.,Institute of Neurology Carlo Besta
Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology | Year: 2013

Hydrogen sulfide (sulfide, H(2)S) is a colorless, water-soluble gas with a typical smell of rotten eggs. In the past, it has been investigated for its role as a potent toxic gas emanating from sewers and swamps or as a by-product of industrial processes. At high concentrations, H(2)S is a powerful inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase; in trace amounts, it is an important signaling molecule, like nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), together termed "gasotransmitters." This review will cover the physiological role and the pathogenic effects of H(2)S, focusing on ethylmalonic encephalopathy, a human mitochondrial disorder caused by genetic abnormalities of sulfide metabolism. We will also discuss the options that are now conceivable for preventing genetically driven chronic H(2)S toxicity, taking into account that a complete understanding of the physiopathology of H(2)S has still to be achieved. Source


Salvati E.,Institute for Molecular Oncology Foundation | Stellacci F.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Stellacci F.,Institute of Neurology Carlo Besta | Krol S.,Institute of Neurology Carlo Besta
Nanomedicine | Year: 2015

The use of nanotechnology for drug delivery in cancer therapy has raised high expectations. Additionally, the use of nanomaterials in sensors to extract and detect tumor specific biomarkers, circulating tumor cells, or extracellular vesicles shed by the tumor holds the promise to detect cancer much earlier and hence improve long-term survival of the patients. Moreover, the monitoring of the anticancer drug concentration, which has a narrow therapeutic window, will allow for a personalized dosing of the drug and will lead to improved therapeutic outcome and life quality of the patient. This review will provide an overview on the use of nanosensors for the early diagnosis of cancer and for the therapeutic drug monitoring, giving some examples. We envision nanosensors to make significant improvements in the cancer management as easy-to-use point-of-care devices for a broad population of users. © 2015 Future Medicine Ltd. Source


Tiranti V.,Institute of Neurology Carlo Besta | Zeviani M.,Institute of Neurology Carlo Besta
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology | Year: 2013

Hydrogen sulfide (sulfide, H2S) is a colorless, water-soluble gas with a typical smell of rotten eggs. In the past, it has been investigated for its role as a potent toxic gas emanating from sewers and swamps or as a by-product of industrial processes. At high concentrations, H2S is a powerful inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase; in trace amounts, it is an important signaling molecule, like nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), together termed "gasotransmitters." This review will cover the physiological role and the pathogenic effects of H2S, focusing on ethylmalonic encephalopathy, a human mitochondrial disorder caused by genetic abnormalities of sulfide metabolism. We will also discuss the options that are now conceivable for preventing genetically driven chronic H2S toxicity, taking into account that a complete understanding of the physiopathology of H2S has still to be achieved. © 2013 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved. Source

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