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Liu X.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Liu X.,Institute of NeuroImmune Pharmacology | Chang S.L.,Institute of NeuroImmune Pharmacology | Chang S.L.,Seton Hall University
Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2011

Alcohol use is very common in our lives and has profound effects on our bodies, especially in adolescents and older people. Alcohol can act on multiple neurotransmitter systems. Among them, the dopaminergic system is thought to play a key role in alcohol-related behaviors and alcohol dependence. This review focuses on the relationship between development and aging of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and alcohol use. © 2011 JMS.

Samikkannu T.,Institute of NeuroImmune Pharmacology | Rao K.V.K.,Institute of NeuroImmune Pharmacology | Ding H.,Institute of NeuroImmune Pharmacology | Agudelo M.,Institute of NeuroImmune Pharmacology | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Arachidonic acid (AA) is known to be increased in HIV infected patients and illicit drug users are linked with severity of viral replication, disease progression, and impaired immune functions. Studies have shown that cocaine accelerates HIV infection and disease progression mediated by immune cells. Dendritic cells (DC) are the first line of antigen presentation and defense against immune dysfunction. However, the role of cocaine use in HIV associated acceleration of AA secretion and its metabolites on immature dendritic cells (IDC) has not been elucidated yet. The aim of this study is to elucidate the mechanism of AA metabolites cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 synthetase (PGE2), thromboxane A2 receptor (TBXA2R), cyclopentenone prostaglandins (CyPG), such as 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 (15d-PGJ2), 14-3-3 ζ/δ and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) mediated induction of IDC immune dysfunctions in cocaine using HIV positive patients. The plasma levels of AA, PGE2, 15d-PGJ2, 14-3-3 ζ/δ and IDC intracellular COX-2 and 5-LOX expression were assessed in cocaine users, HIV positive patients, HIV positive cocaine users and normal subjects. Results showed that plasma concentration levels of AA, PGE2 and COX-2, TBXA2R and 5-LOX in IDCs of HIV positive cocaine users were significantly higher whereas 15d-PGJ2 and 14-3-3 ζ/δ were significantly reduced compared to either HIV positive subjects or cocaine users alone. This report demonstrates that AA metabolites are capable of mediating the accelerative effects of cocaine on HIV infection and disease progression. © 2014 Samikkannu et al.

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