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Wang L.,University of California at Los Angeles | Stengel A.,University of California at Los Angeles | Stengel A.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Goebel-Stengel M.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 5 more authors.
Peptides | Year: 2013

Urocortins (Ucns) injected peripherally decrease food intake and gastric emptying through peripheral CRF2 receptors in rodents. However, whether Ucns influence circulating levels of the orexigenic and prokinetic hormone, ghrelin has been little investigated. We examined plasma levels of ghrelin and blood glucose after intravenous (iv) injection of Ucn 1, the CRF receptor subtype involved and underlying mechanisms in ad libitum fed rats equipped with a chronic iv cannula. Ucn 1 (10 μg/kg, iv) induced a rapid onset and long lasting increase in ghrelin levels reaching 68% and 219% at 0.5 and 3 h post injection respectively and a 5-h hyperglycemic response. The selective CRF2 agonist, Ucn 2 (3 μg/kg, iv) increased fasting acyl (3 h: 49%) and des-acyl ghrelin levels (3 h: 30%) compared to vehicle while the preferential CRF1 agonist, CRF (3 μg/kg, iv) had no effect. Ucn 1's stimulatory actions were blocked by the selective CRF2 antagonist, astressin2-B (100 μg/kg, iv). Hexamethonium (10 mg/kg, sc) prevented Ucn 1-induced rise in total ghrelin levels while not altering the hyperglycemic response. These data indicate that systemic injection of Ucns induces a CRF2-mediated increase in circulating ghrelin levels likely via indirect actions on gastric ghrelin cells that involves a nicotinic pathway independently from the hyperglycemic response. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source


Stengel A.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Hofmann T.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Goebel-Stengel M.,Institute of Neurogastroenterology and Motility | Elbelt U.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | And 2 more authors.
Peptides | Year: 2013

Irisin was recently identified as cleavage product of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5) and shown to increase energy expenditure in mice and humans and therefore was discussed as potential treatment option in obesity. However, the regulation of irisin under conditions of severely altered body weight such as anorexia nervosa and obesity remains to be investigated. We analyzed circulating irisin levels over a broad spectrum of body weight in 40 patients with anorexia nervosa (mean body mass index, BMI 12.6 ± 0.7 kg/m2), normal weight controls (22.6 ± 0.9 kg/m2) and obese patients with BMI of 30-40 (36.9 ± 1.2 kg/m2), 40-50 (44.9 ± 1.1 kg/m2) and >50 (70.1 ± 2.7 kg/m 2, n = 8/group). Correlation analyses were performed between irisin and different body indices, parameters of body composition and hormones involved in various homeostatic processes. Obese patients showed higher circulating irisin levels compared to normal weight and anorexic patients (p < 0.05) resulting in a correlation of irisin with body weight (r = 0.47, p < 0.01) and BMI (r = 0.50, p < 0.001). Plasma irisin was also positively correlated with fat mass (r = 0.48, p < 0.01), body cell mass (r = 0.45, p < 0.01) and fat free mass (r = 0.40, p < 0.05). Insulin levels were positively correlated with irisin (r = 0.45, p < 0.01), whereas circulating ghrelin, cortisol, thyroid-stimulating hormone or C-reactive protein were not (p > 0.05). These data indicate that circulating irisin is affected under conditions of altered BMI with highest levels in severely obese patients. The increase of irisin under conditions of obesity may indicate a physiological function to improve glucose tolerance which is often impaired in obese subjects. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source


Stengel A.,University of California at Los Angeles | Stengel A.,Charite Center for Internal Medicine and Dermatology | Goebel-Stengel H.,University of California at Los Angeles | Goebel-Stengel H.,Institute of Neurogastroenterology and Motility | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology | Year: 2013

Obesity is an increasing health problem. Because drug treatments are limited, diets remain popular. High-protein diets (HPD) reduce body weight (BW), although the mechanisms are unclear. We investigated physiological mechanisms altered by switching diet induced obesity (DIO) rats from Western-type diet (WTD) to HPD. Male rats were fed standard (SD) or WTD (45% calories from fat). After developing DIO (50% of rats), they were switched to SD (15% calories from protein) or HPD (52% calories from protein) for up to 4 weeks. Food intake (FI), BW, body composition, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and intestinal hormone plasma levels were monitored. Rats fed WTD showed an increased FI and had a 25% greater BW gain after 9 wk compared with SD (P < 0.05). Diet-induced obese rats switched from WTD to HPD reduced daily FI by 30% on day 1, which lasted to day 9 (-9%) and decreased BW during the 2-wk period compared with SD/SD (P < 0.05). During these 2 wk, WTD/HPD rats lost 72% more fat mass than WTD/SD (P < 0.05), whereas lean mass was unaltered. WTD/HPD rats had lower blood glucose than WTD/SD at 30 min postglucose gavage (P < 0.05). The increase of pancreatic polypeptide and peptide YY during the 2-h dark-phase feeding was higher in WTD/HPD compared with WTD/SD (P < 0.05). These data indicate that HPD reduces BW in WTD rats, which may be related to decreased FI and the selective reduction of fat mass accompanied by improved glucose tolerance, suggesting relevant benefits of HPD in the treatment of obesity. © 2013 the American Physiological Society. Source


Goebel-Stengel M.,Institute of Neurogastroenterology and Motility | Hofmann T.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Elbelt U.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | Teuffel P.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin | And 5 more authors.
Peptides | Year: 2013

Ghrelin is the only known peripherally produced and centrally acting peptide hormone stimulating food intake. The acylation of ghrelin is essential for binding to its receptor. Recently, the ghrelin activating enzyme ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT) was identified in mice, rats and humans. In addition to gastric mucosal expression, GOAT was also detected in the circulation of rodents and its expression was dependent on metabolic status. We investigated whether GOAT is also present in human plasma and whether expression levels are affected under different conditions of body weight. Normal weight, anorexic and obese subjects with body mass index (BMI) 30-40, 40-50 and >50 were recruited (n = 9/group). In overnight fasted subjects GOAT protein expression was assessed by Western blot and ghrelin measured by ELISA. GOAT protein was detectable in human plasma. Anorexic patients showed reduced GOAT protein levels (-42%, p < 0.01) whereas obese patients with BMI > 50 had increased concentrations (+34%) compared to normal weight controls. Ghrelin levels were higher in anorexic patients compared to all other groups (+62-78%, p < 0.001). Plasma GOAT protein expression showed a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.71, p < 0.001) and a negative correlation with ghrelin (r = -0.60, p < 0.001). Summarized, GOAT is also present in human plasma and GOAT protein levels depend on the metabolic environment with decreased levels in anorexic and increased levels in morbidly obese patients. These data may indicate that GOAT counteracts the adaptive changes of ghrelin observed under these conditions and ultimately contributes to the development or maintenance of anorexia and obesity as it is the only enzyme acylating ghrelin. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

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