Institute of Neurobiology Alfred Fessard

La Terrasse, France

Institute of Neurobiology Alfred Fessard

La Terrasse, France
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Chapouton P.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Chapouton P.,TU Munich | Skupien P.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Skupien P.,TU Munich | And 16 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2010

The limited generation of neurons during adulthood is controlled by a balance between quiescence and recruitment of neural stem cells (NSCs). We use here the germinal zone of the zebrafish adult telencephalon to examine how the frequency of NSC divisions is regulated. We show, using several in vivo techniques, that progenitors transit back and forth between the quiescent and dividing state, according to varying levels of Notch activity: Notch induction drives progenitors into quiescence, whereas blocking Notch massively reinitiates NSC division and subsequent commitment toward becoming neurons. Notch activation appears predominantly triggered by newly recruited progenitors onto their neighbors, suggesting an involvement of Notch in a self-limiting mechanism, once neurogenesis is started. These results identify for the first time a lateral inhibition-like mechanism in the context of adult neurogenesis and suggest that the equilibrium between quiescence and neurogenesis in the adult brain is controlled by fluctuations of Notch activity, thereby regulating the amount of adult-born neurons. Copyright © 2010 the authors.

Strahle U.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Bally-Cuif L.,Institute of Neurobiology Alfred Fessard | Kelsh R.,University of Bath | Beis D.,Academy of Athens | And 7 more authors.
Zebrafish | Year: 2012

Small fresh water fishes such as the zebrafish (Danio rerio) have become important model organisms for biomedical research. They currently represent the best vertebrate embryo models in which it is possible to derive quantitative data on gene expression, signaling events, and cell behavior in real time in the living animal. Relevant phenotypes in fish mutants are similar to those of other vertebrate models and human diseases. They can be analyzed in great detail and much faster than in mammals. In recent years, approximately 2500 genetically distinct fish lines have been generated by European research groups alone. Their potential, including their possible use by industry, is far from being exploited. To promote zebrafish research in Europe, EuFishBioMed was founded and won support by the EU COST programme ( The main objective of EuFishBioMed is to establish a platform of knowledge exchange for research on small fish models with a strong focus on widening its biomedical applications and an integration of European research efforts and resources. EuFishBioMed currently lists more than 300 member laboratories in Europe, offers funding for short-term laboratory visits, organizes and co-sponsors meetings and workshops, and has successfully lobbied for the establishment of a European Zebrafish Resource Centre. To maintain this network in the future, beyond the funding period of the COST Action, we are currently establishing the European Society for Fish Models in Biology and Medicine. © 2012 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Amir-Zilberstein L.,Weizmann Institute of Science | Blechman J.,Weizmann Institute of Science | Sztainberg Y.,Weizmann Institute of Science | Sztainberg Y.,Bar - Ilan University | And 8 more authors.
Neuron | Year: 2012

Regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) activity is critical for the animal's adaptation to stressful challenges, and its dysregulation is associated with psychiatric disorders in humans. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this transcriptional response to stress is not well understood. Using various stress paradigms in mouse and zebrafish, we show that the hypothalamic transcription factor Orthopedia modulates the expression of CRH as well as the splicing factor Ataxin 2-Binding Protein-1 (A2BP1/Rbfox-1). We further show that the G protein coupled receptor PAC1, which is a known A2BP1/Rbfox-1 splicing target and an important mediator of CRH activity, is alternatively spliced in response to a stressful challenge. The generation of PAC1-hop messenger RNA isoform by alternative splicing is required for termination of CRH transcription, normal activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and adaptive anxiety-like behavior. Our study identifies an evolutionarily conserved biochemical pathway that modulates the neuronal adaptation to stress throughtranscriptional activation and alternative splicing. Amir-Zilberstein et al. studied the regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which mediates adaptation to stressful challenges. They revealed that stress response is modulated by the transcription factor Otp and the transmembrane neuropeptide receptor PAC1 and involves activity-dependent alternative splicing of PAC1. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Sinha D.K.,CNRS ENS Statistical Physics Laboratory | Neveu P.,CNRS ENS Statistical Physics Laboratory | Neveu P.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris | Neveu P.,University of California at Santa Barbara | And 18 more authors.
Zebrafish | Year: 2010

We implemented a noninvasive optical method for the fast control of Cre recombinase in single cells of a live zebrafish embryo. Optical uncaging of the caged precursor of a nonendogeneous steroid by one- or two-photon illumination was used to restore Cre activity of the CreERT2 fusion protein in specific target cells. This method labels single cells irreversibly by inducing recombination in an appropriate reporter transgenic animal and thereby can achieve high spatiotemporal resolution in the control of gene expression. This technique could be used more generally to investigate important physiological processes (e.g., in embryogenesis, organ regeneration, or carcinogenesis) with high spatiotemporal resolution (single cell and 10-min scales). © Copyright 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Webb K.J.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Webb K.J.,Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry | Coolen M.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Coolen M.,Institute of Neurobiology Alfred Fessard | And 12 more authors.
BMC Developmental Biology | Year: 2011

Background: Neurogenesis control and the prevention of premature differentiation in the vertebrate embryo are crucial processes, allowing the formation of late-born cell types and ensuring the correct shape and cytoarchitecture of the brain. Members of the Hairy/Enhancer of Split (Hairy/E(spl)) family of bHLH-Orange transcription factors, such as zebrafish Her3, 5, 9 and 11, are implicated in the local inhibition of neurogenesis to maintain progenitor pools within the early neural plate. To better understand how these factors exert their inhibitory function, we aimed to isolate some of their functional interactors. Results: We used a yeast two-hybrid screen with Her5 as bait and recovered a novel zebrafish Hairy/E(spl) factor - Her8a. Using phylogenetic and synteny analyses, we demonstrate that her8a evolved from an ancient duplicate of Hes6 that was recently lost in the mammalian lineage. We show that her8a is expressed across the mid- and anterior hindbrain from the start of segmentation. Through knockdown and misexpression experiments, we demonstrate that Her8a is a negative regulator of neurogenesis and plays an essential role in generating progenitor pools within rhombomeres 2 and 4 - a role resembling that of Her3. Her8a co-purifies with Her3, suggesting that Her8a-Her3 heterodimers may be relevant in this domain of the neural plate, where both proteins are co-expressed. Finally, we demonstrate that her8a expression is independent of Notch signaling at the early neural plate stage but that SoxB factors play a role in its expression, linking patterning information to neurogenesis control. Overall, the regulation and function of Her8a differ strikingly from those of its closest relative in other vertebrates - the Hes6-like proteins. Conclusions: Our results characterize the phylogeny, expression and functional interactions involving a new Her factor, Her8a, and highlight the complex interplay of E(spl) proteins that generates the neurogenesis pattern of the zebrafish early neural plate. © 2011 Webb et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Kalueff A.V.,Tulane University | Kalueff A.V.,ZENEREI Institute and ZNRC | Gebhardt M.,Tulane University | Gebhardt M.,ZENEREI Institute and ZNRC | And 31 more authors.
Zebrafish | Year: 2013

Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly gaining popularity in translational neuroscience and behavioral research. Physiological similarity to mammals, ease of genetic manipulations, sensitivity to pharmacological and genetic factors, robust behavior, low cost, and potential for high-throughput screening contribute to the growing utility of zebrafish models in this field. Understanding zebrafish behavioral phenotypes provides important insights into neural pathways, physiological biomarkers, and genetic underpinnings of normal and pathological brain function. Novel zebrafish paradigms continue to appear with an encouraging pace, thus necessitating a consistent terminology and improved understanding of the behavioral repertoire. What can zebrafish 'do', and how does their altered brain function translate into behavioral actions? To help address these questions, we have developed a detailed catalog of zebrafish behaviors (Zebrafish Behavior Catalog, ZBC) that covers both larval and adult models. Representing a beginning of creating a more comprehensive ethogram of zebrafish behavior, this effort will improve interpretation of published findings, foster cross-species behavioral modeling, and encourage new groups to apply zebrafish neurobehavioral paradigms in their research. In addition, this glossary creates a framework for developing a zebrafish neurobehavioral ontology, ultimately to become part of a unified animal neurobehavioral ontology, which collectively will contribute to better integration of biological data within and across species. © Copyright 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2013.

Sun M.,Helmholtz Center Munich | Sun M.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Holter S.M.,Helmholtz Center Munich | Stepan J.,Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry | And 14 more authors.
Mammalian Genome | Year: 2013

βB2-crystallin (gene symbol: Crybb2/CRYBB2) was first described as a structural protein of the ocular lens. This gene, however, is also expressed in several regions of the mammalian brain, although its function in this organ remains entirely unknown. To unravel some aspects of its function in the brain, we combined behavioral, neuroanatomical, and physiological analyses in a novel Crybb2 mouse mutant, O377. Behavioral tests with male O377 mutants revealed altered sensorimotor gating, suggesting modified neuronal functions. Since these mouse mutants also displayed reduced hippocampal size, we concentrated further investigations on the hippocampus. Free intracellular Ca2+ levels were increased and apoptosis was enhanced in the hippocampus of O377 mutants. Moreover, the expression of the gene encoding calpain 3 (gene symbol Capn3) was elevated and the expression of genes coding for the NMDA receptor subunits was downregulated. Additionally, the number of parvalbumin-positive interneurons was decreased in the hippocampus but not in the cortex of the mutants. High-speed voltage-sensitive dye imaging demonstrated an increased translation of input-to-output neuronal activity in the dentate gyrus of this Crybb2 mutant. These results point to an important function of βB2-crystallin in the hippocampal network. They indicate pleiotropic effects of mutations in the Crybb2 gene, which previously had been considered to be specific to the ocular lens. Moreover, our results are the first to demonstrate that βB2-crystallin has a role in hippocampal function and behavioral phenotypes. This model can now be further explored by future experiments. © 2013 The Author(s).

Lange M.,Institute of Neurobiology Alfred Fessard | Norton W.,Institute of Neurobiology Alfred Fessard | Coolen M.,Institute of Neurobiology Alfred Fessard | Chaminade M.,Institute of Neurobiology Alfred Fessard | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Psychiatry | Year: 2012

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, increased impulsivity and emotion dysregulation. Linkage analysis followed by fine-mapping identified variation in the gene coding for Latrophilin 3 (LPHN3), a putative adhesion-G protein-coupled receptor, as a risk factor for ADHD. In order to validate the link between LPHN3 and ADHD, and to understand the function of LPHN3 in the etiology of the disease, we examined its ortholog lphn3.1 during zebrafish development. Loss of lphn3.1 function causes a reduction and misplacement of dopamine-positive neurons in the ventral diencephalon and a hyperactive/ impulsive motor phenotype. The behavioral phenotype can be rescued by the ADHD treatment drugs methylphenidate and atomoxetine. Together, our results implicate decreased Lphn3 activity in eliciting ADHD-like behavior, and demonstrate its correlated contribution to the development of the brain dopaminergic circuitry. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Henrique D.,Institute Medicina Molecular | Henrique D.,Instituto Gulbenkian Of Ciencia | Bally-Cuif L.,Institute of Neurobiology Alfred Fessard
Development | Year: 2010

The Company of Biologists recently launched a new series of workshops aimed at bringing together scientists with different backgrounds to discuss cutting edge research in emerging and cross-disciplinary areas of biology. The first workshop was held at Wilton Park, Sussex, UK, and the chosen theme was 'Neural Stem Cells in Development and Disease', which is indeed a hot topic, not only because of the potential use of neural stem cells in cell replacement therapies to treat neurodegenerative diseases, but also because alterations in their behaviour can, in certain cases, lie at the origin of brain tumours and other diseases.

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