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Araoz R.,Institute Of Neurobiologie Alfred Fessard | Servent D.,French Atomic Energy Commission | Molgoi J.,Institute Of Neurobiologie Alfred Fessard | Iorga B.I.,CNRS Natural Product Chemistry Institute | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2011

Pinnatoxins belong to an emerging class of potent marine toxins of the cyclic imine group. Detailed studies of their biological effects have been impeded by unavailability of the complex natural product from natural sources. This work describes the development of a robust, scalable synthetic sequence relying on a convergent strategy that delivered a sufficient amount of the toxin for detailed biological studies and its commercialization for use by other research groups and regulatory agencies. A central transformation in the synthesis is the highly diastereoselective Ireland-Claisen rearrangement of a complex α,α-disubstituted allylic ester based on a unique mode for stereoselective enolization through a chirality match between the substrate and the lithium amide base. With synthetic pinnatoxin A, a detailed study has been performed that provides conclusive evidence for its mode of action as a potent inhibitor of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors selective for the human neuronal α7 subtype. The comprehensive electrophysiological, biochemical, and computational studies support the view that the spiroimine subunit of pinnatoxins is critical for blocking nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes, as evidenced by analyzing the effect of a synthetic analogue of pinnatoxin A containing an open form of the imine ring. Our studies have paved the way for the production of certified standards to be used for mass-spectrometric determination of these toxins in marine matrices and for the development of tests to detect these toxins in contaminated shellfish. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Castro-Gonzalez C.,Technical University of Madrid | Castro-Gonzalez C.,CIBER ISCIII | Ledesma-Carbayo M.J.,Technical University of Madrid | Ledesma-Carbayo M.J.,CIBER ISCIII | And 3 more authors.
Birth Defects Research Part C - Embryo Today: Reviews | Year: 2012

Digital atlases of animal development provide a quantitative description of morphogenesis, opening the path toward processes modeling. Prototypic atlases offer a data integration framework where to gather information from cohorts of individuals with phenotypic variability. Relevant information for further theoretical reconstruction includes measurements in time and space for cell behaviors and gene expression. The latter as well as data integration in a prototypic model, rely on image processing strategies. Developing the tools to integrate and analyze biological multidimensional data are highly relevant for assessing chemical toxicity or performing drugs preclinical testing. This article surveys some of the most prominent efforts to assemble these prototypes, categorizes them according to salient criteria and discusses the key questions in the field and the future challenges toward the reconstruction of multiscale dynamics in model organisms. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc..


Razy-Krajka F.,Institute Of Neurobiologie Alfred Fessard | Razy-Krajka F.,New York University | Brown E.R.,Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn | Brown E.R.,Heriot - Watt University | And 9 more authors.
BMC Biology | Year: 2012

Background: The retina of craniates/vertebrates has been proposed to derive from a photoreceptor prosencephalic territory in ancestral chordates, but the evolutionary origin of the different cell types making the retina is disputed. Except for photoreceptors, the existence of homologs of retinal cells remains uncertain outside vertebrates.Methods: The expression of genes expressed in the sensory vesicle of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis including those encoding components of the monoaminergic neurotransmission systems, was analyzed by in situ hybridization or in vivo transfection of the corresponding regulatory elements driving fluorescent reporters. Modulation of photic responses by monoamines was studied by electrophysiology combined with pharmacological treatments.Results: We show that many molecular characteristics of dopamine-synthesizing cells located in the vicinity of photoreceptors in the sensory vesicle of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis are similar to those of amacrine dopamine cells of the vertebrate retina. The ascidian dopamine cells share with vertebrate amacrine cells the expression of the key-transcription factor Ptf1a, as well as that of dopamine-synthesizing enzymes. Surprisingly, the ascidian dopamine cells accumulate serotonin via a functional serotonin transporter, as some amacrine cells also do. Moreover, dopamine cells located in the vicinity of the photoreceptors modulate the light-off induced swimming behavior of ascidian larvae by acting on alpha2-like receptors, instead of dopamine receptors, supporting a role in the modulation of the photic response. These cells are located in a territory of the ascidian sensory vesicle expressing genes found both in the retina and the hypothalamus of vertebrates (six3/6, Rx, meis, pax6, visual cycle proteins).Conclusion: We propose that the dopamine cells of the ascidian larva derive from an ancestral multifunctional cell population located in the periventricular, photoreceptive field of the anterior neural tube of chordates, which also gives rise to both anterior hypothalamus and the retina in craniates/vertebrates. It also shows that the existence of multiple cell types associated with photic responses predates the formation of the vertebrate retina. © 2012 Razy-Krajka et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Roude D.,Rennes Institute of Physics | Recher G.,Equipe SCANING | Recher G.,Institute Of Neurobiologie Alfred Fessard | Bellanger J.-J.,CNRS Signal and Image Processing Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
Biophysical Journal | Year: 2011

A theoretical far-field second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging radiation pattern is calculated for muscular myosin taking into account both Gouy effect and light diffraction under high focusing excitation. Theoretical analysis, in agreement with experimental results obtained on healthy Xenopus muscles, shows that the increase on intensity at the middle of the sarcomeric SHG intensity pattern is generated by an off-axis constructive interference related to the specific antipolar distribution of myosin molecules within the sarcomere. The best fit of the experimental sarcomeric SHG intensity pattern was obtained with an estimated size of antiparallel, intrathick filaments' packing-width of 115 ± 25 nm localized at the M-band. During proteolysis, experimental sarcomeric SHG intensity pattern exhibits decrease on intensity at the center of the sarcomere. An effective intra- and interthick filaments centrosymmetry of 320 ± 25 nm, in agreement with ultrastructural disorganization observed at the electron microscopy level, was necessary to fit the experimental sarcomeric SHG intensity pattern. Our results show that sarcomeric SHG intensity pattern is very sensitive to misalignment of thick filaments and highlights the potential usefulness of SHG microscopy to diagnose proteolysis-induced muscular disorders. © 2011 Biophysical Society.


Stivala C.E.,Stanford University | Benoit E.,Institute Of Neurobiologie Alfred Fessard | Araoz R.,Institute Of Neurobiologie Alfred Fessard | Servent D.,French Atomic Energy Commission | And 3 more authors.
Natural Product Reports | Year: 2015

Covering: up to August 2014 From a small group of exotic compounds isolated only two decades ago, Cyclic Imine (CI) toxins have become a major class of marine toxins with global distribution. Their distinct chemical structure, biological mechanism of action, and intricate chemistry ensures that CI toxins will continue to be the subject of fascinating fundamental studies in the broad fields of chemistry, chemical biology, and toxicology. The worldwide occurrence of potent CI toxins in marine environments, their accumulation in shellfish, and chemical stability are important considerations in assessing risk factors for human health. This review article aims to provide an account of chemistry, biology, and toxicology of CI toxins from their discovery to the present day. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Delloye-Bourgeois C.,University of Lyon | Rama N.,University of Lyon | Brito J.,Institute Of Neurobiologie Alfred Fessard | Brito J.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | And 2 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2014

Cell-adhesion molecule-related/Downregulated by Oncogenes (CDO or CDON) was identified as a receptor for the classic morphogen Sonic Hedgehog (SHH). It has been shown that, in cell culture, CDO also behaves as a SHH dependence receptor: CDO actively triggers apoptosis in absence of SHH via a proteolytic cleavage in CDO intracellular domain. We present evidence that CDO is also pro-apoptotic in the developing neural tube where SHH is known to act as a survival factor. SHH, produced by the ventral foregut endoderm, was shown to promote survival of facial neural crest cells (NCCs) that colonize the first branchial arch (BA1). We show here that the survival activity of SHH on neural crest cells is due to SHH-mediated inhibition of CDO pro-apoptotic activity. Silencing of CDO rescued NCCs from apoptosis observed upon SHH inhibition in the ventral foregut endoderm. Thus, the pair SHH/dependence receptor CDO may play an important role in neural crest cell survival during the formation of the first branchial arch. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Bery A.,Institute Of Neurobiologie Alfred Fessard | Martynoga B.,MRC NIMR | Guillemot F.,MRC NIMR | Joly J.-S.,Institute Of Neurobiologie Alfred Fessard | Retaux S.,Institute Of Neurobiologie Alfred Fessard
Cerebral Cortex | Year: 2014

We aimed to identify cis-regulatory elements that control gene expression in progenitors of the cerebral cortex. A list of 975 putative enhancers were retrieved from a ChIP-Seq experiment performed in NS5 mouse stem cells with antibodies to Sox2, Brn2/Pou3f2, or Brn1/Pou3f3. Through a selection pipeline including gene ontology and expression pattern, we reduced the number of candidate enhancer sequences to 20. Ex vivo electroporation of green fluorescent pProtein (GFP) reporter constructs in the telencephalon of mouse embryos showed that 35% of the 20 selected candidate sequences displayed enhancer activity in the developing cortex at E13.5. In silico transcription factor binding site (TFBS) searches and mutagenesis experiments showed that enhancer activity is related to the presence of Sox/Pou TFBS pairs in the sequence. Comparative genomic analyses showed that enhancer activity is not related to the evolutionary conservation of the sequence. Finally, the combination of in utero electroporation of GFP reporter constructs with immunostaining for Tbr2 (basal progenitor marker) and phospho-histoneH3 (mitotic activity marker) demonstrated that each enhancer is specifically active in precise subpopulations of progenitors in the cortical germinal zone, highlighting the heterogeneity of these progenitors in terms of cis-regulation. © The Author 2013.


PubMed | Institute Of Neurobiologie Alfred Fessard
Type: | Journal: BMC biology | Year: 2012

The retina of craniates/vertebrates has been proposed to derive from a photoreceptor prosencephalic territory in ancestral chordates, but the evolutionary origin of the different cell types making the retina is disputed. Except for photoreceptors, the existence of homologs of retinal cells remains uncertain outside vertebrates.The expression of genes expressed in the sensory vesicle of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis including those encoding components of the monoaminergic neurotransmission systems, was analyzed by in situ hybridization or in vivo transfection of the corresponding regulatory elements driving fluorescent reporters. Modulation of photic responses by monoamines was studied by electrophysiology combined with pharmacological treatments.We show that many molecular characteristics of dopamine-synthesizing cells located in the vicinity of photoreceptors in the sensory vesicle of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis are similar to those of amacrine dopamine cells of the vertebrate retina. The ascidian dopamine cells share with vertebrate amacrine cells the expression of the key-transcription factor Ptf1a, as well as that of dopamine-synthesizing enzymes. Surprisingly, the ascidian dopamine cells accumulate serotonin via a functional serotonin transporter, as some amacrine cells also do. Moreover, dopamine cells located in the vicinity of the photoreceptors modulate the light-off induced swimming behavior of ascidian larvae by acting on alpha2-like receptors, instead of dopamine receptors, supporting a role in the modulation of the photic response. These cells are located in a territory of the ascidian sensory vesicle expressing genes found both in the retina and the hypothalamus of vertebrates (six3/6, Rx, meis, pax6, visual cycle proteins).We propose that the dopamine cells of the ascidian larva derive from an ancestral multifunctional cell population located in the periventricular, photoreceptive field of the anterior neural tube of chordates, which also gives rise to both anterior hypothalamus and the retina in craniates/vertebrates. It also shows that the existence of multiple cell types associated with photic responses predates the formation of the vertebrate retina.


PubMed | Institute Of Neurobiologie Alfred Fessard and University of Lyon
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biochemical and biophysical research communications | Year: 2014

Cell-adhesion molecule-related/Downregulated by Oncogenes (CDO or CDON) was identified as a receptor for the classic morphogen Sonic Hedgehog (SHH). It has been shown that, in cell culture, CDO also behaves as a SHH dependence receptor: CDO actively triggers apoptosis in absence of SHH via a proteolytic cleavage in CDO intracellular domain. We present evidence that CDO is also pro-apoptotic in the developing neural tube where SHH is known to act as a survival factor. SHH, produced by the ventral foregut endoderm, was shown to promote survival of facial neural crest cells (NCCs) that colonize the first branchial arch (BA1). We show here that the survival activity of SHH on neural crest cells is due to SHH-mediated inhibition of CDO pro-apoptotic activity. Silencing of CDO rescued NCCs from apoptosis observed upon SHH inhibition in the ventral foregut endoderm. Thus, the pair SHH/dependence receptor CDO may play an important role in neural crest cell survival during the formation of the first branchial arch.


PubMed | Institute Pasteur, Institute Of Neurobiologie Alfred Fessard, Paris-Sorbonne University and Montpellier University
Type: | Journal: Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE | Year: 2015

We report here a robust and efficient protocol for the expression of fluorescent proteins after mRNA injection into unfertilized oocytes of the cephalochordate amphioxus, Branchiostoma lanceolatum. We use constructs for membrane and nuclear targeted mCherry and eGFP that have been modified to accommodate amphioxus codon usage and Kozak consensus sequences. We describe the type of injection needles to be used, the immobilization protocol for the unfertilized oocytes, and the overall injection set-up. This technique generates fluorescently labeled embryos, in which the dynamics of cell behaviors during early development can be analyzed using the latest in vivo imaging strategies. The development of a microinjection technique in this amphioxus species will allow live imaging analyses of cell behaviors in the embryo as well as gene-specific manipulations, including gene overexpression and knockdown. Altogether, this protocol will further consolidate the basal chordate amphioxus as an animal model for addressing questions related to the mechanisms of embryonic development and, more importantly, to their evolution.

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