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El'Shina T.S.,Perm State University | Sosnin E.A.,RAS Institute of Technical Chemistry | Shklyaeva E.V.,Institute of Natural science | Abashev G.G.,RAS Institute of Technical Chemistry
Russian Journal of General Chemistry | Year: 2013

2,5-Dithienylpyrroles containing p-substituted benzene ring at the nitrogen atom were synthesized. The formylation and subsequent crotonic condensation of N-(4-nitrophenyl)-2,5-di (2-thienyl)pyrrole was performed. Electrochemical behavior of the compounds and electrochromic properties of 2,5-di(2-thienyl)- pyrrole containing p-semidine fragment at its nitrogen atom were studied. © 2013 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source


Pingret D.,University of Avignon | Durand G.,University of Strasbourg | Durand G.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Fabiano-Tixier A.-S.,University of Avignon | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

During ultrasound processing of lipid-containing food, some off-flavors can be detected, which can incite depreciation by consumers. The impacts of ultrasound treatment on sunflower oil using two different ultrasound horns (titanium and pyrex) were evaluated. An electron paramagnetic resonance study was performed to identify and quantify the formed radicals, along with the assessment of classical physicochemical parameters such as peroxide value, acid value, anisidine value, conjugated dienes, polar compounds, water content, polymer quantification, fatty acid composition, and volatiles profile. The study shows an increase of formed radicals in sonicated oils, as well as the modification of physicochemical parameters evidencing an oxidation of treated oils. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source


Bertrand I.,CNRS Laboratory of Physical Chemistry and Microbiology for the Environment | Schijven J.F.,National Institute of Public Health and the Environment | Sanchez G.,Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology IATA CSIC | Wyn-Jones P.,Aberystwyth University | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2012

Temperature is considered as the major factor determining virus inactivation in the environment. Food industries, therefore, widely apply temperature as virus inactivating parameter. This review encompasses an overview of viral inactivation and virus genome degradation data from published literature as well as a statistical analysis and the development of empirical formulae to predict virus inactivation. A total of 658 data (time to obtain a first log10 reduction) were collected from 76 published studies with 563 data on virus infectivity and 95 data on genome degradation. Linear model fitting was applied to analyse the effects of temperature, virus species, detection method (cell culture or molecular methods), matrix (simple or complex) and temperature category (<50 and ≥50°C). As expected, virus inactivation was found to be faster at temperatures ≥50°C than at temperatures <50°C, but there was also a significant temperature-matrix effect. Virus inactivation appeared to occur faster in complex than in simple matrices. In general, bacteriophages PRD1 and PhiX174 appeared to be highly persistent whatever the matrix or the temperature, which makes them useful indicators for virus inactivation studies. The virus genome was shown to be more resistant than infectious virus. Simple empirical formulas were developed that can be used to predict virus inactivation and genome degradation for untested temperatures, time points or even virus strains. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology. Source


Kim M.,University of Glasgow | Kim M.,Institute of Natural science | Furness R.W.,University of Glasgow | Nager R.G.,University of Glasgow
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology | Year: 2010

Hatching asynchrony is widespread amongst animals, but no consensus has yet emerged as to why asynchronous hatching has evolved. It is generally thought to have adaptive benefits during the raising of dependent young. However, here, we considered an alternative view of hatching asynchrony in birds as a consequence of factors acting at the onset of incubation. We recorded parental nest attendance behaviour during laying using continuous records of nest temperature in herring gulls, Larus argentatus. We tested whether nest attendance during laying was related to individual factors (clutch size and diet) and whether it had consequences on fitness outcomes (hatching spread, incubation period, hatching success and chick survival). Low nest attendance was associated with small clutch size, and independent of clutch size, pairs on a more marine diet had lower nest attendance than pairs on a lower trophic level terrestrial diet, possibly due to higher foraging effort for marine food. Broods hatched more asynchronous where pairs had a lower nest attendance during laying or took longer to complete a clutch and where the last egg took longer to hatch. Low nest attendance was also related to shorter incubation periods, possibly representing a strategy of birds in poor condition to reduce the demand of incubation by reducing the length of incubation. We found that low nest attendance during laying and increasing hatching asynchrony had detrimental effects on hatching success for small eggs laid early in the laying sequence. Increasing hatching asynchrony also had a detrimental effect on the survival of the youngest sibling. In our study population, hatching asynchrony was influenced by a more complex set of factors than simply onset of incubation and appears to be constrained by circumstances at the onset of incubation rather than to be an adaptive strategy. Thus, factors acting both during offspring rearing and at the onset of incubation need to be considered for a better understanding of hatching asynchrony. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source


Piria M.,University of Zagreb | Povz M.,Institute of Natural science | Vilizzi L.,Mugla University | Zanella D.,University of Zagreb | And 4 more authors.
Fisheries Management and Ecology | Year: 2016

The Fish Invasiveness Screening Kit (FISK) version 2 was used to assess the invasiveness potential of 40 introduced and translocated freshwater fish species to Croatia and Slovenia. Based on a priori classification of invasiveness, receiver operating characteristic analysis of FISK scores from two independent assessors resulted in a statistically significant calibration threshold of 11.75. This indicated that FISK was able to discriminate reliably between non-native species likely to pose a high risk of being invasive and those likely to pose a medium or low risk of invasiveness. Seven species were categorised as 'medium risk' and the other 33 as 'high risk', whereas no species was categorised as 'low risk'. The two highest scoring species were European catfish Silurus glanis and North African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Mean scores for all species classified a priori as invasive were ranked as 'high risk' sensu lato and fell into the 'moderately high risk' subcategory. FISK proved to be a valid tool for assessing the risks posed by non-native fishes in Croatia and Slovenia. For this reason, it can be adopted as a reliable tool for the prevention of new translocations or introductions of potentially invasive species in the risk assessment area, as well as to assist in decisions regarding future management (i.e. monitoring, control and eradication) and conservation strategies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

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