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Proenca M.P.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | Proenca M.P.,University of Porto | Merazzo K.J.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | Vivas L.G.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | And 6 more authors.
Nanotechnology | Year: 2013

A comparative study on the structural and magnetic properties of highly ordered hexagonal arrays of Co nanoholes, nanowires, nanopillars and nanotubes, with tuned pore/wire/tube diameters, is here presented. The magnetic interactions and their dependence on the geometric features of the arrays were studied using first-order reversal curves (FORCs). For all nanostructures we observe an increase of the magnetostatic interactions with the templates' pore diameter, with the higher (smaller) values found for the nanowire (nanohole) arrays. For the smallest diameters studied (35 nm), all types of arrays could be considered as almost isolated nanostructures, where local interactions prevail. In particular, both nanotube and nanohole arrays exhibit considerable local magnetostatic interactions coming from the stray fields within each void or empty core. On the other hand, the coercivity is found to decrease with diameter for the elongated nanostructures, while it increases with the pore diameter for the nanohole arrays. This behavior is associated with the magnetization reversal mechanisms present in each array. This work highlights a versatile route to tailor the size, geometrical arrangement and magnetostatic interactions of ordered arrays and demonstrates their importance for the tuning of the magnetic behavior of nanometric devices. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Salamalikis V.,University of Patras | Argiriou A.A.,University of Patras | Dotsika E.,Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016

In dry and warm environments sub-cloud evaporation influences the falling raindrops modifying their final stable isotopic content. During their descent from the cloud base towards the ground surface, through the unsaturated atmosphere, hydrometeors are subjected to evaporation whereas the kinetic fractionation results to less depleted or enriched isotopic signatures compared to the initial isotopic composition of the raindrops at cloud base. Nowadays the development of Generalized Climate Models (GCMs) that include isotopic content calculation modules are of great interest for the isotopic tracing of the global hydrological cycle. Therefore the accurate description of the underlying processes affecting stable isotopic content can improve the performance of iso-GCMs. The aim of this study is to model the sub-cloud evaporation effect using a) mixing and b) numerical isotope evaporation models. The isotope-mixing evaporation model simulates the isotopic enrichment (difference between the ground and the cloud base isotopic composition of raindrops) in terms of raindrop size, ambient temperature and relative humidity (RH) at ground level. The isotopic enrichment (δδ) varies linearly with the evaporated raindrops mass fraction of the raindrop resulting to higher values at drier atmospheres and for smaller raindrops. The relationship between δδ and RH is described by a 'heat capacity' model providing high correlation coefficients for both isotopes (R2>80%) indicating that RH is an ideal indicator of the sub-cloud evaporation effect. Vertical distribution of stable isotopes in falling raindrops is also investigated using a numerical isotope-evaporation model. Temperature and humidity dependence of the vertical isotopic variation is clearly described by the numerical isotopic model showing an increase in the isotopic values with increasing temperature and decreasing RH. At an almost saturated atmosphere (RH=95%) sub-cloud evaporation is negligible and the isotopic composition hardly changes even at high temperatures while at drier and warm conditions the enrichment of 18O reaches up to 20‰, depending on the raindrop size and the initial meteorological conditions. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Xu M.,Florida International University | Lai Y.,Florida International University | Jiang Z.,Florida International University | Terzidis M.A.,National Research Council Italy | And 4 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2014

5',8-cyclo-2'-deoxypurines (cdPus) are common forms of oxidized DNA lesions resulting from endogenous and environmental oxidative stress such as ionizing radiation. The lesions can only be repaired by nucleotide excision repair with a low efficiency. This results in their accumulation in the genome that leads to stalling of the replication DNA polymerases and poor lesion bypass by translesion DNA polymerases. Trinucleotide repeats (TNRs) consist of tandem repeats of Gs and As and therefore are hotspots of cdPus. In this study, we provided the first evidence that both (5'R)- and (5'S)-5',8-cyclo-2'-deoxyadenosine (cdA) in a CAG repeat tract caused CTG repeat deletion exclusively during DNA lagging strand maturation and base excision repair. We found that a cdA induced the formation of a CAG loop in the template strand, which was skipped over by DNA polymerase β (pol β) lesion bypass synthesis. This subsequently resulted in the formation of a long flap that was efficiently cleaved by flap endonuclease 1, thereby leading to repeat deletion. Our study indicates that accumulation of cdPus in the human genome can lead to TNR instability via a unique lesion bypass by pol β. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

Vivas L.G.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | Vazquez M.,CSIC - Institute of Materials Science | Escrig J.,University of Santiago de Chile | Allende S.,University of Santiago de Chile | And 4 more authors.
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

Ordered arrays of Co xNi 1-x nanowires (0

Salamalikis V.,University of Patras | Argiriou A.A.,University of Patras | Dotsika E.,Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2016

In this paper the periodic patterns of the isotopic composition of precipitation (δ18O) for 22 stations located around Central Europe are investigated through sinusoidal models and wavelet analysis over a 23 years period (1980/01-2002/12). The seasonal distribution of δ18O follows the temporal variability of air temperature providing seasonal amplitudes ranging from 0.94‰ to 4.47‰ the monthly isotopic maximum is observed in July. The isotopic amplitude reflects the geographical dependencies of the isotopic composition of precipitation providing higher values when moving inland. In order to describe the dominant oscillation modes included in δ18O time series, the Morlet Continuous Wavelet Transform is evaluated. The main periodicity is represented at 12-months (annual periodicity) where the wavelet power is mainly concentrated. Stations (i.e. Cuxhaven, Trier, etc.) with limited seasonal isotopic effect provide sparse wavelet power areas at the annual periodicity mode explaining the fact that precipitation has a complex isotopic fingerprint that cannot be examined solely by the seasonality effect. Since temperature is the main contributor of the isotopic variability in mid-latitudes, the isotope-temperature effect is also investigated. The isotope-temperature slope ranges from 0.11‰/°C to 0.47‰/°C with steeper values observed at the southernmost stations of the study area. Bivariate wavelet analysis is applied in order to determine the correlation and the slope of the δ18O - temperature relationship over the time-frequency plane. High coherencies are detected at the annual periodicity mode. The time-frequency slope is calculated at the annual periodicity mode ranging from 0.45‰/°C to 0.83‰/°C with higher values at stations that show a more distinguishable seasonal isotopic behavior. Generally the slope fluctuates around a mean value but in certain cases (sites with low seasonal effect) abrupt slope changes are derived and the slope becomes strongly unstable. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

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