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Zhu Y.,Second Military Medical UniversityShanghai | Zhu Y.,Institute of Medical Mycology | Pan W.H.,Second Military Medical UniversityShanghai | Pan W.H.,Institute of Medical Mycology | And 12 more authors.
International Immunopharmacology | Year: 2015

Abstract The aim of the current study was to investigate the involvement of tryptase and protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) in the pathogenesis of itch using a recently developed murine model of atopic dermatitis (AD) elicited by epicutaneous sensitization with ovalbumin (OVA). We also examined whether tacrolimus exerts an antipruritic effect. Epicutaneous sensitization of BALB/c mice with OVA led to a significant increase in the number of scratches. Notably, PAR2 mRNA and protein levels as well as cutaneous levels of tryptase were significantly enhanced in epicutaneously sensitized mice. Pretreatment with the protease inhibitor, leupeptin, PAR2 antibody, and tacrolimus significantly reduced the number of degranulated mast cells and tryptase content, and consequently alleviated scratching behavior. Cetirizine (10 mg/kg) exerted a significant inhibitory effect on the scratching behavior of mice, but did not affect the number of degranulated mast cells and induction of tryptase. Our results collectively suggest that tryptase and PAR2 are involved in OVA allergy-induced scratching behavior. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Pan B.,Shanghai University | Pan B.,Institute of Medical Mycology | Pan B.,Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Medical Mycology | Chen M.,Shanghai University | And 5 more authors.
Mycoses | Year: 2013

Histoplasmosis occurs in specific endemic areas, including the mid-western United States, Africa and most of Latin America. Sporadic cases have also been reported in China. The aim of this study was to summarise the epidemiological and clinical data of histoplasmosis in China. We searched the PubMed, CBMdisk and CNKI databases to identify publications related to histoplasmosis in China. Case reports/series on patients with histoplasmosis were included. A comprehensive literature review identified additional cases. The relevant material was evaluated and reviewed. Overall, 300 cases of histoplasmosis were reported in China from 1990 to 2011, and 75% were from regions through which the Yangtze River flows. Most of the patients were autochthonous infections. Of these, 43 patients had pulmonary histoplasmosis and 257 patients had disseminated histoplasmosis. Common underlying diseases included HIV infection, diabetes mellitus and liver diseases. Fever was the most frequently reported clinical feature in disseminated histoplasmosis, followed by splenomegaly and hepatomegaly. Cases of histoplasmosis had a prominent geographical distribution in China. Histoplasmosis should be considered in the diagnosis of patients with relevant symptoms and a history of travel to or residence in these areas. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


PubMed | Heilongjiang Provincial Corps Hospital, Shanghai University, Second Military Medical University and Institute of Medical Mycology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International immunopharmacology | Year: 2015

The aim of the current study was to investigate the involvement of tryptase and protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) in the pathogenesis of itch using a recently developed murine model of atopic dermatitis (AD) elicited by epicutaneous sensitization with ovalbumin (OVA). We also examined whether tacrolimus exerts an antipruritic effect. Epicutaneous sensitization of BALB/c mice with OVA led to a significant increase in the number of scratches. Notably, PAR2 mRNA and protein levels as well as cutaneous levels of tryptase were significantly enhanced in epicutaneously sensitized mice. Pretreatment with the protease inhibitor, leupeptin, PAR2 antibody, and tacrolimus significantly reduced the number of degranulated mast cells and tryptase content, and consequently alleviated scratching behavior. Cetirizine (10mg/kg) exerted a significant inhibitory effect on the scratching behavior of mice, but did not affect the number of degranulated mast cells and induction of tryptase. Our results collectively suggest that tryptase and PAR2 are involved in OVA allergy-induced scratching behavior.


Lee W.J.,Kyungpook National University | Park K.H.,Kyungpook National University | Kim M.S.,Kyungpook National University | Lee S.-J.,Kyungpook National University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Korean Medical Science | Year: 2014

Trichophyton mentagrophytes is the second common dermatophyte in Korea. However, few reports have been issued on the epidemiological and mycological characteristics of T. mentagrophytes in Korea based on long-term, large-scale study. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the epidemiological and mycological characteristics of T. mentagrophytes in Korea. During the 21-yr-period from 1992 to 2012, 6,250 patients with T. mentagrophytes were surveyed to determine annual incidence and the distribution of subjects by age, sex, season, involved sites, and place of residence. T. mentagrophytes infections were confirmed by fungal culture. In addition, the colony appearance of T. mentagrophytes was classified as granular, persicolor, powdery, or downy. Epidemiological analysis showed that annual incidence reached a peak in 2005, and then gradually decreased. T. mentagrophytes infection was most common in July, and was found predominantly in middle-aged adults, especially in those in their forties. Mycological analysis showed a powdery colony appearance was the most common, followed by persicolor and granular colonies. Toewebs were most frequently involved. This investigation on T. mentagrophytes provides insights into its incidence and characteristics. © 2014 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.


Kim H.Y.,Kyungpook National University | Kim S.L.,Kyungpook National University | Lee W.J.,Kyungpook National University | Lee S.-J.,Kyungpook National University | And 2 more authors.
Korean Journal of Medical Mycology | Year: 2014

Trichophyton (T.) tonsurans is a common anthropophilic species, which causes tinea capitis and tinea corporis particularily in Europe and America, but has not been prevalent in Korea. One case with mycoses infection of the scalp and the other with tinea corporis due to T. tonsurans were observed in Korean general population. We confirmed T. tonsurans infection on the basis of the direct microscopic examination and culture from scales and infected hairs of skin lesions. Systemic itraconazole and terbinafine therapy with topical ketoconazole cream led to clinical and mycological recovery in our cases. Infection of T. tonsurans appears to have spread gradually among the general population in Korea. Therefore, athletic and medical associations should make constant observation and take close consideration about T. tonsurans infection. © Copyright 2014 by The Korean Society for Medical Mycology (pISSN: 1226-709). All right reserved.


Lee W.J.,Kyungpook National University | Song C.H.,Kyungpook National University | Lee S.-J.,Kyungpook National University | Kim D.W.,Kyungpook National University | And 2 more authors.
Mycopathologia | Year: 2012

Since 1957, Microsporum (M.) canis has been one of the common causative agents of dermatophytosis in Korea. We analyzed 944 patients infected with M. canis who attended outpatient clinic over a 17-year period (1993-2009). M. canis infections were diagnosed by mycological examinations, including direct microscopic examinations with 15% KOH and cultures on potato dextrose agar complemented with 0.5% chloramphenicol. Mycological examinations confirmed 164,903 cases of dermatophytosis, 944 (0.6%) of which were M. canis infections. The annual prevalence of patients with M. canis infection was the highest in 2002 (91 cases). Then, the prevalence of patients with M. canis infection markedly decreased until 2008 (15 cases). The ratio of male to female patients was 0.65:1, but the ratio in children under the age of 15 was 1.14:1 and was 0.20:1 in adults. Seasonally, 274 cases occurred in winter, showing higher incidence than in other seasons. There was a difference in the clinical forms of M. canis infections between children and adults; tinea (T.) capitis was the most common form in children, but T. corporis was the most common in adults. We demonstrate that the decreasing prevalence of M. canis infections over the study period has been noted in Korea. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Lee W.J.,Kyungpook National University | Kim S.L.,Kyungpook National University | Jang Y.H.,Kyungpook National University | Lee S.-J.,Kyungpook National University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Korean Medical Science | Year: 2015

Trichophyton rubrum is the most common dermatophyte in the world with the highest prevalence in Korea. There are few reports about epidemiological and mycological characteristics of T. rubrum based on long-term, large-scale studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of T. rubrum infections in Korea. We retrospectively investigated with patients' records about the epidemiological and mycological status of 115,846 cases with T. rubrum infection that was mycologically diagnosed at Catholic Skin Disease Clinic from 1979 to 2013. Direct microscopy in 15% KOH solution and culture was done in each case. The annual incidence of patients with T. rubrum infection had been increasing during the period; and of 131,122 patients with dermatophytosis, 115,846 patients (88.35%) had T. rubrum infection. Disease was most prevalent among patients in their twenties in the 1970s and 1980s; in their thirties in the 1990s; in their forties in the 2000s; and in their fifties in the 2010s. The sex ratio was 1.5:1. T. rubrum infection was most commonly seen in summer and was found predominantly in patients living in urban areas. Toe webs were most frequently involved, followed by toenails and groin. This epidemiologic findings provide useful information for prevention of T. rubrum infection and future dermatophytosis prospects. © 2015 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.


Lee W.J.,Kyungpook National University | Sim H.B.,Kyungpook National University | Jang Y.H.,Kyungpook National University | Lee S.-J.,Kyungpook National University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Korean Medical Science | Year: 2016

Since 1995, Trichophyton tonsurans has been one of the causative agents of dermatophytosis in Korea. Herein we evaluate 77 patients infected with T. tonsurans who visited an outpatient clinic between 2004 and 2014. Infections due to T. tonsurans were diagnosed by mycological examination, which included direct microscopic examination using 15% KOH and culture in potato dextrose agar complemented with 0.5% chloramphenicol. The annual prevalence of infection due to T. tonsurans was the highest in 2014 (15 cases) but remained constant in non-gladiators between 2004 and 2014. The ratio of male to female patients was 1:0.3. The spring season presented the highest incidence compared with other seasons, with 27 cases. The incidence of infections due to T. tonsurans among gladiators was highest in spring compared with the other seasons whereas the incidence in non-gladiators was the highest in the winter. The body site most commonly affected was the face. Tinea corporis was the most common subtype of dermatophytosis caused by T. tonsurans. Herein, we demonstrate that the prevalence of infection with T. tonsurans remain constant throughout the study period in Korea. ©2016 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.


PubMed | Institute of Medical Mycology and Kyungpook National University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of Korean medical science | Year: 2016

Since 1995, Trichophyton tonsurans has been one of the causative agents of dermatophytosis in Korea. Herein we evaluate 77 patients infected with T. tonsurans who visited an outpatient clinic between 2004 and 2014. Infections due to T. tonsurans were diagnosed by mycological examination, which included direct microscopic examination using 15% KOH and culture in potato dextrose agar complemented with 0.5% chloramphenicol. The annual prevalence of infection due to T. tonsurans was the highest in 2014 (15 cases) but remained constant in non-gladiators between 2004 and 2014. The ratio of male to female patients was 1:0.3. The spring season presented the highest incidence compared with other seasons, with 27 cases. The incidence of infections due to T. tonsurans among gladiators was highest in spring compared with the other seasons whereas the incidence in non-gladiators was the highest in the winter. The body site most commonly affected was the face. Tinea corporis was the most common subtype of dermatophytosis caused by T. tonsurans. Herein, we demonstrate that the prevalence of infection with T. tonsurans remain constant throughout the study period in Korea.


PubMed | Institute of Medical Mycology and Kyungpook National University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of Korean medical science | Year: 2014

Trichophyton mentagrophytes is the second common dermatophyte in Korea. However, few reports have been issued on the epidemiological and mycological characteristics of T. mentagrophytes in Korea based on long-term, large-scale study. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the epidemiological and mycological characteristics of T. mentagrophytes in Korea. During the 21-yr-period from 1992 to 2012, 6,250 patients with T. mentagrophytes were surveyed to determine annual incidence and the distribution of subjects by age, sex, season, involved sites, and place of residence. T. mentagrophytes infections were confirmed by fungal culture. In addition, the colony appearance of T. mentagrophytes was classified as granular, persicolor, powdery, or downy. Epidemiological analysis showed that annual incidence reached a peak in 2005, and then gradually decreased. T. mentagrophytes infection was most common in July, and was found predominantly in middle-aged adults, especially in those in their forties. Mycological analysis showed a powdery colony appearance was the most common, followed by persicolor and granular colonies. Toewebs were most frequently involved. This investigation on T. mentagrophytes provides insights into its incidence and characteristics.

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