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Schulz S.,Helmholtz Center Munich | Schmitt S.,Helmholtz Center Munich | Wimmer R.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Aichler M.,Institute of Pathology | And 10 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes

The cell-toxic bile salt glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA) and taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) are responsible for hepatocyte demise in cholestatic liver diseases, while tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is regarded hepatoprotective. We demonstrate the direct mitochondrio-toxicity of bile salts which deplete the mitochondrial membrane potential and induce the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). The bile salt mediated mechanistic mode of destruction significantly differs from that of calcium, the prototype MPT inducer. Cell-toxic bile salts initially bind to the mitochondrial outer membrane. Subsequently, the structure of the inner boundary membrane disintegrates. And it is only thereafter that the MPT is induced. This progressive destruction occurs in a dose- and time-dependent way. We demonstrate that GCDCA and TCDCA, but not TUDCA, preferentially permeabilize liposomes containing the mitochondrial membrane protein ANT, a process resembling the MPT induction in whole mitochondria. This suggests that ANT is one decisive target for toxic bile salts. To our knowledge this is the first report unraveling the consecutive steps leading to mitochondrial destruction by cell-toxic bile salts. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Bertossi A.,Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology | Krappmann D.,Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology
EMBO Journal

MALT1 paracaspase links signaling cascades emanating from adaptive or innate immune receptors to the canonical NF-κB pathway. Now, Jaworski et al () investigate the physiological role of MALT1 protease activity in mice. Besides the expected requirement of MALT1 activity for immune activation, the study unveils a novel function for MALT1 activity for the development of peripheral tolerance. Thus, MALT1 protease can act immunogenic or tolerogenic, and this interplay will be highly relevant for the clinical development of MALT1 inhibitors. The unexpected finding that the NF-κB-regulating MALT1 protease can act either immunogenic or tolerogenic in vivo bears important implications for the clinical development of MALT1 inhibitors. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Diener S.,Institute of Human Genetics | Schorpp K.,Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology | Strom T.-M.,Institute of Human Genetics | Strom T.-M.,TU Munich | And 2 more authors.
Assay and Drug Development Technologies

Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a bone-derived endocrine key regulator of phosphate homeostasis. It inhibits renal tubular phosphate reabsorption by activating receptor complexes composed of FGF receptor 1c (FGFR1c) and the co-receptor Klotho. As a major signaling pathway mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is employed. In this study, we established an FGF23-inducible cell model by stably expressing human Klotho in HEK293 cells (HEK293-KL cells) containing endogenous FGF receptors. To identify novel small molecule compounds that modulate FGF23/FGFR1c/Klotho signaling, we developed and optimized a cell-based assay that is suited for high-throughput screening. The assay monitors the phosphorylation of endogenous extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 in cellular lysates of HEK293-KL cells after induction with FGF23. This cell-based assay was highly robust (Z′ factor >0.5) and the induction of the system is strictly dependent on the presence of FGF23. The inhibitor response curves generated using two known MAPK pathway inhibitors correlate well with data obtained by another assay format. This assay was further used to identify small molecule modulators of the FGF23 signaling cascade by screening the 1,280 food and drug administration-approved small molecule library of Prestwick Chemical. The primary hit rate was 2% and false positives were efficiently identified by retesting the hits in primary and secondary validation screening assays and in western blot analysis. Intriguingly, by using a basic FGF (bFGF)/FGFR counterscreening approach, one validated hit compound retained specificity toward FGF23 signaling, while bFGF signaling was not affected. Since increased plasma concentrations of FGF23 are the main cause of many hypophosphatemic disorders, a modulation of its effect could be a potential novel strategy for therapeutic intervention. Moreover, this strategy may be valuable for other disorders affecting phosphate homeostasis. © 2015, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Schorpp K.,Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology | Rothenaigner I.,Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology | Salmina E.,Helmholtz Center Munich | Reinshagen J.,European Screening Port GmbH | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Biomolecular Screening

Although small-molecule drug discovery efforts have focused largely on enzyme, receptor, and ion-channel targets, there has been an increase in such activities to search for protein-protein interaction (PPI) disruptors by applying high-throughout screening (HTS)-compatible protein-binding assays. However, a disadvantage of these assays is that many primary hits are frequent hitters regardless of the PPI being investigated. We have used the AlphaScreen technology to screen four different robust PPI assays each against 25,000 compounds. These activities led to the identification of 137 compounds that demonstrated repeated activity in all PPI assays. These compounds were subsequently evaluated in two AlphaScreen counter assays, leading to classification of compounds that either interfered with the AlphaScreen chemistry (60 compounds) or prevented the binding of the protein His-tag moiety to nickel chelate (Ni2+-NTA) beads of the AlphaScreen detection system (77 compounds). To further triage the 137 frequent hitters, we subsequently confirmed by a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay that most of these compounds were only frequent hitters in AlphaScreen assays. A chemoinformatics analysis of the apparent hits provided details of the compounds that can be flagged as frequent hitters of the AlphaScreen technology, and these data have broad applicability for users of these detection technologies. © 2013 Society for Laboratory. Source

Keusekotten K.,Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology | Elliott P.R.,Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology | Glockner L.,Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology | Fiil B.K.,Novo Nordisk AS | And 8 more authors.

The linear ubiquitin (Ub) chain assembly complex (LUBAC) is an E3 ligase that specifically assembles Met1-linked (also known as linear) Ub chains that regulate nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling. Deubiquitinases (DUBs) are key regulators of Ub signaling, but a dedicated DUB for Met1 linkages has not been identified. Here, we reveal a previously unannotated human DUB, OTULIN (also known as FAM105B), which is exquisitely specific for Met1 linkages. Crystal structures of the OTULIN catalytic domain in complex with diubiquitin reveal Met1-specific Ub-binding sites and a mechanism of substrate-assisted catalysis in which the proximal Ub activates the catalytic triad of the protease. Mutation of Ub Glu16 inhibits OTULIN activity by reducing k cat 240-fold. OTULIN overexpression or knockdown affects NF-κB responses to LUBAC, TNFα, and poly(I:C) and sensitizes cells to TNFα-induced cell death. We show that OTULIN binds LUBAC and that overexpression of OTULIN prevents TNFα-induced NEMO association with ubiquitinated RIPK1. Our data suggest that OTULIN regulates Met1-polyUb signaling. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

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