Knobloch H.,Cranfield University |
Schroedl W.,University of Leipzig |
Turner C.,Open University Milton Keynes |
Chambers M.,TB Research Group |
Reinhold P.,Institute of Molecular Pathogenesis at the Friedrich Loeffler Institute FLI
Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical | Year: 2010
This study aimed (i) to assess the ability of electronic nose (e-nose) technology to differentiate between blood samples of experimentally infected and non-infected subjects and (ii) to evaluate e-nose responses given by volatile organic compounds in relation to the acute phase reaction generated in the host. In an animal model of gram-negative bacterial infection (20 calves; intratracheal inoculation of Mannheimia haemolytica A1), the concentrations of the acute phase proteins (APPs; i.e. lipopolysaccharide binding protein and haptoglobin) were measured in serum samples before and after challenge, and headspaces of pre- and post-inoculation serum samples were analysed using a conducting polymer-based e-nose. Significant changes of certain e-nose sensor responses allowed discrimination between samples before and after challenge. The maximal changes in responses of sensitive e-nose sensors corresponded to the peak of clinical signs. Significant correlations linked decreasing responses of multiple e-nose sensors to increasing concentrations of APPs in the peripheral blood. © 2009.