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Longo V.D.,University of Southern California | Longo V.D.,Institute of Molecular Oncology | Panda S.,Salk Institute for Biological Studies
Cell Metabolism

Most animals alternate periods of feeding with periods of fasting often coinciding with sleep. Upon >24 hr of fasting, humans, rodents, and other mammals enter alternative metabolic phases, which rely less on glucose and more on ketone body-like carbon sources. Both intermittent and periodic fasting result in benefits ranging from the prevention to the enhanced treatment of diseases. Similarly, time-restricted feeding (TRF), in which food consumption is restricted to certain hours of the day, allows the daily fasting period to last >12 hr, thus imparting pleiotropic benefits. Understanding the mechanistic link between nutrients and the fasting benefits is leading to the identification of fasting-mimicking diets (FMDs) that achieve changes similar to those caused by fasting. Given the pleiotropic and sustained benefits of TRF and FMDs, both basic science and translational research are warranted to develop fasting-associated interventions into feasible, effective, and inexpensive treatments with the potential to improve healthspan. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Source

Roubelakis M.G.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Roubelakis M.G.,University of Oxford | Tsaknakis G.,University of Oxford | Tsaknakis G.,Institute of Molecular Oncology | And 3 more authors.

Human amniotic fluid obtained at amniocentesis, when cultured, generates at least two morphologically distinct mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) subsets. Of these, the spindle shaped amniotic fluid MSCs (SS-AF-MSCs) contain multipotent cells with enhanced adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic capacity. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, the capacity of these SS-AF-MSCs to support neovascularization by umbilical cord blood (UCB) endothelial colony forming cell (ECFC) derived cells in both in vitro and in vivo models. Interestingly, although the kinetics of vascular tubule formation in vitro were similar when the supporting SS-AF-MSCs were compared with the best vasculogenic supportive batches of bone marrow MSCs (BMSCs) or human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs), SS-AF-MSCs supported vascular tubule formation in vivo more effectively than BMSCs. In NOD/SCID mice, the human vessels inosculated with murine vessels demonstrating their functionality. Proteome profiler array analyses revealed both common and distinct secretion profiles of angiogenic factors by the SS-AF-MSCs as opposed to the hDFs and BMSCs. Thus, SS-AF-MSCs, which are considered to be less mature developmentally than adult BMSCs, and intermediate between adult and embryonic stem cells in their potentiality, have the additional and very interesting potential of supporting increased neovascularisation, further enhancing their promise as vehicles for tissue repair and regeneration. © 2013 Roubelakis et al. Source

Bottos A.,Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research | Bardelli A.,University of Turin | Bardelli A.,Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment | Bardelli A.,Institute of Molecular Oncology
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences

The acquisition of oncogenic mutations and promotion of angiogenesis are key hallmarks of cancer. These features are often thought of as separate events in tumor progression and the two fields of research have frequently been considered as independent. However, as we highlight in this review, activated oncogenes and deregulated angiogenesis are tightly associated, as mutations in cancer cells can lead to perturbation of the pro- and anti-angiogenic balance thereby causing aberrant angiogenesis. We propose that normalization of the vascular network by targeting oncogenes in the tumor cells might lead to more efficient and sustained therapeutic effects compared to therapies targeting tumor vessels. We discuss how pharmacological inhibition of oncogenes in tumor cells restores a functional vasculature by bystander anti-angiogenic effect. As genetic alterations are tumor-specific, targeted therapy, which potentially blocks the angiogenic program activated by individual oncogenes may lead to personalized anti-angiogenic therapy. © 2013 Springer Basel. Source

Manzoni R.,Institute of Molecular Oncology | Montani F.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Visintin C.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Caudron F.,ETH Zurich | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Cell Biology

In budding yeast, the phosphatase Cdc14 orchestrates progress through anaphase and mitotic exit, thereby resetting the cell cycle for a new round of cell division. Two consecutive pathways, Cdc fourteen early anaphase release (FEAR) and mitotic exit network (MEN), contribute to the progressive activation of Cdc14 by regulating its release from the nucleolus, where it is kept inactive by Cfi1. In this study, we show that Cdc14 activation requires the polo-like kinase Cdc5 together with either Clb-cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) or the MEN kinase Dbf2. Once active, Cdc14 triggers a negative feedback loop that, in the presence of stable levels of mitotic cyclins, generates periodic cycles of Cdc14 release and sequestration. Similar phenotypes have been described for yeast bud formation and centrosome duplication. A common theme emerges where events that must happen only once per cycle, although intrinsically capable of oscillations, are limited to one occurrence by the cyclin-Cdk cell cycle engine. © 2010 Manzoni et al. Source

Reczko M.,Institute of Molecular Oncology | Reczko M.,Synaptic Ltd. | Maragkakis M.,Institute of Molecular Oncology | Maragkakis M.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | And 5 more authors.

Motivation: Experimental evidence has accumulated showing that microRNA (miRNA) binding sites within protein coding sequences (CDSs) are functional in controlling gene expression. Results: Here we report a computational analysis of such miRNA target sites, based on features extracted from existing mammalian high-throughput immunoprecipitation and sequencing data. The analysis is performed independently for the CDS and the 3 '-untranslated regions (3 '-UTRs) and reveals different sets of features and models for the two regions. The two models are combined into a novel computational model for miRNA target genes, DIANA-microT-CDS, which achieves higher sensitivity compared with other popular programs and the model that uses only the 3 '-UTR target sites. Further analysis indicates that genes with shorter 3 '-UTRs are preferentially targeted in the CDS, suggesting that evolutionary selection might favor additional sites on the CDS in cases where there is restricted space on the 3′-UTR. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source

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