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Schliekelman M.J.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | Taguchi A.,University of Houston | Zhu J.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Dai X.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | And 19 more authors.
Cancer Research

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key process associated with tumor progression and metastasis. To define molecular features associated with EMT states, we undertook an integrative approach combining mRNA, miRNA, DNA methylation, and proteomic profiles of 38 cell populations representative of the genomic heterogeneity in lung adenocarcinoma. The resulting data were integrated with functional profiles consisting of cell invasiveness, adhesion, and motility. A subset of cell lines that were readily defined as epithelial or mesenchymal based on their morphology and E-cadherin and vimentin expression elicited distinctive molecular signatures. Other cell populations displayed intermediate/hybrid states of EMT, with mixed epithelial and mesenchymal characteristics. A dominant proteomic feature of aggressive hybrid cell lines was upregulation of cytoskeletal and actin-binding proteins, a signature shared with mesenchymal cell lines. Cytoskeletal reorganization preceded loss of E-cadherin in epithelial cells in which EMT was induced by TGFb. A set of transcripts corresponding to the mesenchymal protein signature enriched in cytoskeletal proteins was found to be predictive of survival in independent datasets of lung adenocarcinomas. Our findings point to an association between cytoskeletal and actinbinding proteins, a mesenchymal or hybrid EMT phenotype and invasive properties of lung adenocarcinomas. Cancer Res; 75(9); 1789-800. © 2015 AACR. Source

Matte C.,Institute Armand Frappier and Center for Host Parasite Interactions | Casgrain P.-A.,Institute Armand Frappier and Center for Host Parasite Interactions | Seguin O.,Institute Armand Frappier and Center for Host Parasite Interactions | Moradin N.,Institute Armand Frappier and Center for Host Parasite Interactions | And 3 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens

The protozoan Leishmania parasitizes macrophages and evades the microbicidal consequences of phagocytosis through the inhibition of phagolysosome biogenesis. In this study, we investigated the impact of this parasite on LC3-associated phagocytosis, a non-canonical autophagic process that enhances phagosome maturation and functions. We show that whereas internalization of L. major promastigotes by macrophages promoted LC3 lipidation, recruitment of LC3 to phagosomes was inhibited through the action of the parasite surface metalloprotease GP63. Reactive oxygen species generated by the NOX2 NADPH oxidase are necessary for LC3-associated phagocytosis. We found that L. major promastigotes prevented, in a GP63-dependent manner, the recruitment of NOX2 to phagosomes through a mechanism that does not involve NOX2 cleavage. Moreover, we found that the SNARE protein VAMP8, which regulates phagosomal assembly of the NADPH oxidase NOX2, was down-modulated by GP63. In the absence of VAMP8, recruitment of LC3 to phagosomes containing GP63-deficient parasites was inhibited, indicating that VAMP8 is involved in the phagosomal recruitment of LC3. These findings reveal a role for VAMP8 in LC3-associated phagocytosis and highlight a novel mechanism exploited by L. major promastigotes to interfere with the host antimicrobial machinery. © 2016 Matte et al. Source

Petermann A.,Institute of Molecular Cell Biology | Haase D.,Institute of Molecular Cell Biology | Haase D.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Wetzel A.,Institute of Molecular Cell Biology | And 9 more authors.
Brain Pathology

DEP-1/PTPRJ is a transmembrane protein-tyrosine phosphatase which has been proposed as a suppressor of epithelial tumors. We have found loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the PTPRJ gene and loss of DEP-1 protein expression in a subset of human meningiomas. RNAi-mediated suppression of DEP-1 in DEP-1 positive meningioma cell lines caused enhanced motility and colony formation in semi-solid media. Cells devoid of DEP-1 exhibited enhanced signaling of endogenous platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors, and reduced paxillin phosphorylation upon seeding. Moreover, DEP-1 loss caused diminished adhesion to different matrices, and impaired cell spreading. DEP-1-deficient meningioma cells exhibited invasive growth in an orthotopic xenotransplantation model in nude mice, indicating that elevated motility translates into a biological phenotype in vivo. We propose that negative regulation of PDGF receptor signaling and positive regulation of adhesion signaling by DEP-1 cooperate in inhibition of meningioma cell motility, and possibly tumor invasiveness. These phenotypes of DEP-1 loss reveal functions of DEP-1 in adherent cells, and may be more generally relevant for tumorigenesis. © 2010 International Society of Neuropathology. Source

Lim J.,Institute of Molecular Cell Biology | Thiery J.P.,Institute of Molecular Cell Biology | Thiery J.P.,National University of Singapore
Development (Cambridge)

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial, evolutionarily conserved process that occurs during development and is essential for shaping embryos. Also implicated in cancer, this morphological transition is executed through multiple mechanisms in different contexts, and studies suggest that the molecular programs governing EMT, albeit still enigmatic, are embedded within developmental programs that regulate specification and differentiation. As we review here, knowledge garnered from studies of EMT during gastrulation, neural crest delamination and heart formation have furthered our understanding of tumor progression and metastasis. © 2012. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd. Source

Zhang W.,Institute of Molecular Cell Biology | Cohen S.M.,Institute of Molecular Cell Biology | Cohen S.M.,National University of Singapore
Biology Open

The Hippo pathway has a central role in coordinating tissue growth and apoptosis. Mutations that compromise Hippo pathway activity cause tissue overgrowth and have been causally linked to cancer. In Drosophila, the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie mediates Hippo pathway activity to control the expression of cyclin E and Myc to promote cell proliferation, as well as the expression of bantam miRNA and DIAP1 to inhibit cell death. Here we present evidence that the Hippo pathway acts via Yorkie and p53 to control the expression of the proapoptotic gene reaper. Yorkie further mediates reaper levels posttranscriptionally through regulation of members of the miR-2 microRNA family to prevent apoptosis. These findings provide evidence that the Hippo pathway acts via several distinct routes to limit proliferation-induced apoptosis. © 2013. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd. Source

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