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Beymer M.,Stony Brook University Medical Center | Beymer M.,State University of New York at Stony Brook | Negron A.L.,Stony Brook University Medical Center | Negron A.L.,State University of New York at Stony Brook | And 8 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2014

Hypothalamic kisspeptin neurons integrate and translate cues from the internal and external environments that regulate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion and maintain fertility in mammals. However, the intracellular signaling pathways utilized to translate such information into changes in kisspeptin expression, release, and ultimately activation of the kisspeptin-receptive GnRH network have not yet been identified. PI3K is an important signaling node common to many peripheral factors known to regulate kisspeptin expression and GnRH release. We investigated whether PI3K signaling regulates hypothalamic kisspeptin expression, pubertal development, and adult fertility in mice. We generated mice with a kisspeptin cell-specific deletion of the PI3K catalytic subunits p110a and p110(3 (kiss-p110a/(3-KO). Using in situ hybridization, we examined Kiss1 mRNA expression in gonad-intact, gonadectomized (Gdx), and Gdx + steroid-replaced mice. Kiss1 cell number in the anteroventral periventricular hypothalamus (AVPV) was significantly reduced in intact females but not in males. In contrast, compared with WT and regardless of steroid hormone status, Kiss1 cell number was lower in the arcuate (ARC) of kiss-p110a/ (3-KO males, but it was unaffected in females. Both intact Kiss-p110a/(3-KO males and females had reduced ARC kisspeptin-immu-noreactive (IR) fibers compared with WT animals. Adult kiss-p110a/ (3-KO males had significantly lower circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, whereas pubertal development and fertility were unaffected in males. Kiss-p110a/(3-KO females exhibited a reduction in fertility despite normal pubertal development, LH levels, and estrous cyclicity. Our data show that PI3K signaling is important for the regulation of hypothalamic kisspeptin expression and contributes to normal fertility in females. © 2014 American Physiological Society. All Rights reserved. Source


Sansbury B.E.,Institute of Molecular Cardiology | Hill B.G.,Institute of Molecular Cardiology | Hill B.G.,University of Louisville
Vitamins and Hormones | Year: 2014

The prevalence of obesity has increased remarkably in the past four decades. Because obesity can promote the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, understanding the mechanisms that engender weight gain and discovering safe antiobesity therapies are of critical importance. In particular, the gaseous signaling molecule, nitric oxide (NO), appears to be a central factor regulating adiposity and systemic metabolism. Obese and diabetic states are characterized by a deficit in bioavailable NO, with such decreases commonly attributed to downregulation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), loss of eNOS activity, or quenching of NO by its reaction with oxygen radicals. Gain-of-function studies, in which vascular-derived NO has been increased pharmacologically or genetically, reveal remarkable actions of NO on body composition and systemic metabolism. This review addresses the metabolic actions of eNOS and the potential therapeutic utility of harnessing its antiobesogenic effects. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source


Conklin D.J.,Diabetes and Obesity Center | Conklin D.J.,Institute of Molecular Cardiology | Guo Y.,Institute of Molecular Cardiology | Jagatheesan G.,Diabetes and Obesity Center | And 28 more authors.
Circulation Research | Year: 2015

Rationale: Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) results in the generation of oxygen-derived free radicals and the accumulation of lipid peroxidation-derived unsaturated aldehydes. However, the contribution of aldehydes to myocardial I/R injury has not been assessed. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that removal of aldehydes by glutathione S-transferase P (GSTP) diminishes I/R injury. Methods and Results: In adult male C57BL/6 mouse hearts, Gstp1/2 was the most abundant GST transcript followed by Gsta4 and Gstm4.1, and GSTP activity was a significant fraction of the total GST activity. mGstp1/2 deletion reduced total GST activity, but no compensatory increase in GSTA and GSTM or major antioxidant enzymes was observed. Genetic deficiency of GSTP did not alter cardiac function, but in comparison with hearts from wild-type mice, the hearts isolated from GSTP-null mice were more sensitive to I/R injury. Disruption of the GSTP gene also increased infarct size after coronary occlusion in situ. Ischemia significantly increased acrolein in hearts, and GSTP deficiency induced significant deficits in the metabolism of the unsaturated aldehyde, acrolein, but not in the metabolism of 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal or trans-2-hexanal; on ischemia, the GSTP-null hearts accumulated more acrolein-modified proteins than wild-type hearts. GSTP deficiency did not affect I/R-induced free radical generation, c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation, or depletion of reduced glutathione. Acrolein exposure induced a hyperpolarizing shift in INa, and acrolein-induced cell death was delayed by SN-6, a Na+/Ca++ exchange inhibitor. Cardiomyocytes isolated from GSTP-null hearts were more sensitive than wild-type myocytes to acrolein-induced protein crosslinking and cell death. Conclusions: GSTP protects the heart from I/R injury by facilitating the detoxification of cytotoxic aldehydes, such as acrolein. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc. Source


Aziz R.,State University of New York at Stony Brook | Beymer M.,State University of New York at Stony Brook | Negron A.L.,State University of New York at Stony Brook | Newshan A.,State University of New York at Stony Brook | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Neuroendocrinology | Year: 2014

Galanin-like peptide (GALP) neurones participate in the metabolic control of reproduction and are targets of insulin and leptin regulation. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) is common to the signalling pathways utilised by both insulin and leptin. Therefore, we investigated whether PI3K signalling in neurones expressing GALP plays a role in the transcriptional regulation of the GALP gene and in the metabolic control of luteinising hormone (LH) release. Accordingly, we deleted PI3K catalytic subunits p110α and p110β via conditional gene targeting (cKO) in mice (GALP-p110α/β cKO). To monitor PI3K signalling in GALP neurones, these animals were also crossed with Cre-dependent FoxO1GFP reporter mice. Compared to insulin-infused control animals, the PI3K-Akt-dependent FoxO1GFP nuclear exclusion in GALP neurones was abolished in GALP-p110α/β cKO mice. We next used food deprivation to investigate whether the GALP-neurone specific ablation of PI3K activity affected the susceptibility of the gonadotrophic axis to negative energy balance. Treatment did not affect LH levels in either sex. However, a significant genotype effect on LH levels was observed in females. By contrast, no genotype effect on LH levels was observed in males. A sex-specific genotype effect on hypothalamic GALP mRNA was observed, with fed and fasted GALP-p110α/β cKO males having lower GALP mRNA expression compared to wild-type fed males. Finally, the effects of gonadectomy and steroid hormone replacement on GALP mRNA levels were investigated. Compared to vehicle-treated mice, steroid hormone replacement reduced mediobasal hypothalamus GALP expression in wild-type and GALP-p110α/β cKO animals. In addition, within the castrated and vehicle-treated group and compared to wild-type mice, LH levels were lower in GALP-p110α/β cKO males. Double immunofluorescence using GALP-Cre/R26-YFP mice showed androgen and oestrogen receptor co-localisation within GALP neurones. Our data demonstrate that GALP neurones are direct targets of steroid hormones and that PI3K signalling regulates hypothalamic GALP mRNA expression and LH levels in a sex-specific fashion. © 2014 British Society for Neuroendocrinology. Source


DeJarnett N.,Diabetes and Obesity Center | DeJarnett N.,Brown Cancer Center | DeJarnett N.,Institute of Molecular Cardiology | Yeager R.,Diabetes and Obesity Center | And 58 more authors.
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology | Year: 2015

Objectives-Previous studies have shown that residential proximity to a roadway is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Yet, the nature of this association remains unclear, and its effect on individual cardiovascular disease risk factors has not been assessed. The objective of this study was to determine whether residential proximity to roadways influences systemic inflammation and the levels of circulating angiogenic cells. Approach and Results-In a cross-sectional study, cardiovascular disease risk factors, blood levels of C-reactive protein, and 15 antigenically defined circulating angiogenic cell populations were measured in participants (n=316) with moderate-to-high cardiovascular disease risk. Attributes of roadways surrounding residential locations were assessed using geographic information systems. Associations between road proximity and cardiovascular indices were analyzed using generalized linear models. Close proximity (<50 m) to a major roadway was associated with lower income and higher rates of smoking but not C-reactive protein levels. After adjustment for potential confounders, the levels of circulating angiogenic cells in peripheral blood were significantly elevated in people living in close proximity to a major roadway (CD31+/AC133+, AC133+, CD34+/AC133+, and CD34+/45dim/AC133+ cells) and positively associated with road segment distance (CD31+/AC133+, AC133+, and CD34+/AC133+ cells), traffic intensity (CD31+/AC133+ and AC133+ cells), and distance-weighted traffic intensity (CD31+/34+/45+/AC133+ cells). Conclusions-Living close to a major roadway is associated with elevated levels of circulating cells positive for the early stem marker AC133+. This may reflect an increased need for vascular repair. Levels of these cells in peripheral blood may be a sensitive index of cardiovascular injury because of residential proximity to roadways. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

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