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Schmid C.A.,Institute of Molecular Cancer Research | Robinson M.D.,Institute of Molecular Life science | Robinson M.D.,Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics | Scheifinger N.A.,Institute of Molecular Cancer Research | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Medicine | Year: 2015

The epigenetic dysregulation of tumor suppressor genes is an important driver of human carcinogenesis. We have combined genome-wide DNA methylation analyses and gene expression profiling after pharmacological DNA demethylation with functional screening to identify novel tumor suppressors in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We find that a CpG island in the promoter of the dual-specificity phosphatase DUSP4 is aberrantly methylated in nodal and extranodal DLBCL, irrespective of ABC or GCB subtype, resulting in loss of DUSP4 expression in 75% of >200 examined cases. The DUSP4 genomic locus is further deleted in up to 13% of aggressive B cell lymphomas, and the lack of DUSP4 is a negative prognostic factor in three independent cohorts of DLBCL patients. Ectopic expression of wild-type DUSP4, but not of a phosphatase-deficient mutant, dephosphorylates c-JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK) and induces apoptosis in DLBCL cells. Pharmacological or dominantnegative JNK inhibition restricts DLBCL survival in vitro and in vivo and synergizes strongly with the Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib. Our results indicate that DLBCL cells depend on JNK signaling for survival. This finding provides a mechanistic basis for the clinical development of JNK inhibitors in DLBCL, ideally in synthetic lethal combinations with inhibitors of chronic active B cell receptor signaling. © 2015 Schmid et al.

Lossaint G.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Larroque M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Ribeyre C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Bec N.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Cell | Year: 2013

Proteins disabled in Fanconi anemia (FA) are necessary for the maintenance of genome stability during cell proliferation. Upon replication stress signaling by ATR, the FA core complex monoubiquitinates FANCD2 and FANCI in order to activate DNA repair. Here, we identified FANCD2 and FANCI in a proteomic screen of replisome-associated factors bound to nascent DNA in response to replication arrest. We found that FANCD2 can interact directly with minichromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins. ATR signaling promoted the transient association of endogenous FANCD2 with the MCM2-MCM7 replicative helicase independently of FANCD2 monoubiquitination. FANCD2 was necessary for human primary cells to restrain DNA synthesis in the presence of a reduced pool of nucleotides and prevented the accumulation of single-stranded DNA, the induction of p21, and the entry of cells into senescence. These data reveal that FANCD2 is an effector of ATR signaling implicated in a general replisome surveillance mechanism that is necessary for sustaining cell proliferation and attenuating carcinogenesis. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Schilling J.D.,University of Washington | Machkovech H.M.,University of Washington | Kim A.H.J.,University of Washington | Schwedwener R.,Institute of Molecular Cancer Research | Schaffer J.E.,University of Washington
American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology | Year: 2012

Diabetes is associated with myocardial lipid accumulation and an increased risk of heart failure. Although cardiac myocyte lipid overload is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiomyopathy in the setting of diabetes, the mechanism(s) through which this occurs is not well understood. Increasingly, inflammation has been recognized as a key pathogenic feature of lipid excess and diabetes. In this study, we sought to investigate the role of inflammatory activation in the pathogenesis of lipotoxic cardiomyopathy using the α-myosin heavy chain promoter-driven long-chain acylCoA synthetase 1 (MHC-ACS) transgenic mouse model. We found that several inflammatory cytokines were upregulated in the myocardium of MHC-ACS mice before the onset of cardiac dysfunction, and this was accompanied by macrophage infiltration. Depletion of macrophages with liposomal clodrolip reduced the cardiac inflammatory response and improved cardiac function. Thus, in this model of lipotoxic cardiac injury, early induction of inflammation and macrophage recruitment contribute to adverse cardiac remodeling. These findings have implications for our understanding of heart failure in the setting of obesity and diabetes. © 2012 the American Physiological Society.

Symington J.W.,University of Washington | Wang C.,University of Washington | Twentyman J.,University of Washington | Owusu-Boaitey N.,University of Washington | And 4 more authors.
Mucosal Immunology | Year: 2015

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequent, commonly recurrent, and costly. Deficiency in a key autophagy protein, ATG16L1, protects mice from infection with the predominant bacterial cause of UTIs, Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). Here, we report that loss of ATG16L1 in macrophages accounts for this protective phenotype. Compared with wild-type macrophages, macrophages deficient in ATG16L1 exhibit increased uptake of UPEC and enhanced secretion of interleukin-1β (IL-1β). The increased IL-1β production is dependent upon activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and caspase-1. IL-1β secretion was also enhanced during UPEC infection of ATG16L1-deficient mice in vivo, and inhibition of IL-1β signaling abrogates the ATG16L1-dependent protection from UTIs. Our results argue that ATG16L1 normally suppresses a host-protective IL-1β response to UPEC by macrophages.

Leonidova A.,University of Zurich | Pierroz V.,University of Zurich | Pierroz V.,Institute of Molecular Cancer Research | Rubbiani R.,University of Zurich | And 3 more authors.
Dalton Transactions | Year: 2014

Over the recent years, several Re(i) organometallic compounds have been shown to be toxic to various cancer cell lines. However, these compounds lacked sufficient selectivity towards cancer tissues to be used as novel chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, we probe the potential of two known N,N-bis(quinolinoyl) Re(i) tricarbonyl complex derivatives, namely Re(i) tricarbonyl [N,N-bis(quinolin-2-ylmethyl)amino]-4-butane-1-amine (Re-NH 2) and Re(i) tricarbonyl [N,N-bis(quinolin-2-ylmethyl)amino]-5- valeric acid (Re-COOH), as photodynamic therapy (PDT) photosensitizers. Re-NH2 and Re-COOH proved to be excellent singlet oxygen generators in a lipophilic environment with quantum yields of about 75%. Furthermore, we envisaged to improve the selectivity of Re-COOHvia conjugation to two types of peptides, namely a nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a derivative of the neuropeptide bombesin, to form Re-NLS and Re-Bombesin, respectively. Fluorescent microscopy on cervical cancer cells (HeLa) showed that the conjugation of Re-COOH to NLS significantly enhanced the compound's accumulation into the cell nucleus and more specifically into its nucleoli. Importantly, in view of PDT applications, the cytotoxicity of the Re complexes and their bioconjugates increased significantly upon light irradiation. In particular, Re-Bombesin was found to be at least 20-fold more toxic after light irradiation. DNA photo-cleavage studies demonstrated that all compounds damaged DNA via singlet oxygen and, to a minor extent, superoxide production. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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