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Dahlhoff M.,Institute of Molecular Animal Breeding and Biotechnology | Algul H.,TU Munich | Siveke J.T.,TU Munich | Lesina M.,TU Munich | And 6 more authors.
Gastroenterology | Year: 2010

Background & Aims: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a serious, unpredictable clinical problem, the pathophysiology of which is poorly understood. Here, we evaluate whether betacellulin (BTC), a ligand of the epidermal growth factor receptor also able to activate the proapoptotic ERBB4 receptor, can protect against experimental AP. Methods: AP was induced in transgenic mice overexpressing BTC (BTC-tg), control mice, or control mice after administration of recombinant BTC. The severity of pancreatitis was assessed by measurements of serum amylase and lipase and histologic grading. The involvement of the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) was evaluated by treating BTC-tg mice with an SAPK inhibitor before induction of AP. Results: BTC-tg mice showed increased apoptosis and proliferation in the exocrine pancreas, indicating an increased cell turnover. There was a marked, epidermal growth factor receptor-independent decrease in pancreas weight. After induction of AP by cerulein injection, BTC-tg mice showed a significantly lower increase in serum amylase and lipase levels as well as less pronounced tissue necrosis, edema, and inflammation, as compared to nontransgenic littermates. This protective effect, also confirmed in the l-arginine AP model, was associated with increased phosphorylation of SAPK and abrogated after treatment of BTC-tg mice with a SAPK inhibitor. Finally, the protective effect of BTC against AP was confirmed by treating nontransgenic mice with recombinant BTC. Conclusions: These findings indicate a potential application of the BTC/ERBB4 pathway for modulating the course of AP. © 2010 AGA Institute.


Schafer M.,Institute of Molecular Health science | Willrodt A.-H.,Institute of Molecular Health science | Kurinna S.,Institute of Molecular Health science | Link A.S.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | And 14 more authors.
EMBO Molecular Medicine | Year: 2014

The transcription factor Nrf2 is a key regulator of the cellular stress response, and pharmacological Nrf2 activation is a promising strategy for skin protection and cancer prevention. We show here that prolonged Nrf2 activation in keratinocytes causes sebaceous gland enlargement and seborrhea in mice due to upregulation of the growth factor epigen, which we identified as a novel Nrf2 target. This was accompanied by thickening and hyperkeratosis of hair follicle infundibula. These abnormalities caused dilatation of infundibula, hair loss, and cyst development upon aging. Upregulation of epigen, secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor (Slpi), and small proline-rich protein 2d (Sprr2d) in hair follicles was identified as the likely cause of infundibular acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, and cyst formation. These alterations were highly reminiscent to the phenotype of chloracne/"metabolizing acquired dioxin-induced skin hamartomas" (MADISH) patients. Indeed, SLPI, SPRR2, and epigen were strongly expressed in cysts of MADISH patients and upregulated by dioxin in human keratinocytes in an NRF2-dependent manner. These results identify novel Nrf2 activities in the pilosebaceous unit and point to a role of NRF2 in MADISH pathogenesis. © 2014 The Authors.


Dahlhoff M.,Institute of Molecular Animal Breeding and Biotechnology | Rose C.,University of Lübeck | De Angelis M.H.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | De Angelis M.H.,TU Munich | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Pathology | Year: 2012

The negative feedback regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and other tyrosine kinase receptors, including receptor dephosphorylation and endocytosis followed by degradation, is becoming recognized as a major determinant of receptor function. To evaluate the significance of the negative regulation of EGFR during carcinogenesis in vivo, we subjected the mutant mouse line Dsk5, in which the intrinsic activation of the receptor due to a point mutation is normally counterbalanced by increased posttranslational receptor down-regulation, to skin chemical carcinogenesis. Dsk5 mice showed reduced tumor numbers and tumor burden compared with control littermates, and Dsk5-derived tumors showed a reduction in the activation and total levels of EGFR. Furthermore, the transcript levels of several molecules known to act as negative regulators of EGFR were significantly increased in Dsk5-derived tumors. Another intriguing observation was the appearance of tumors with sebaceous differentiation in the ears of Dsk5 mice after chemical carcinogenesis. Further studies are necessary to reveal whether these tumors represent a cell typespecific evasion from EGFR negative feedback machinery. In conclusion, this study reveals that several negative feedback regulators contribute to suppression of the intrinsic activation of mutant EGFR during skin carcinogenesis, stressing the potential exploitation of negative regulators as either therapeutic targets or diagnostic tools in cancer and other diseases. © 2012 American Society for Investigative Pathology.


Dahlhoff M.,Institute of Molecular Animal Breeding and Biotechnology | Frohlich T.,Gene Center | Arnold G.J.,Gene Center | Muller U.,Human Biology and BioImaging | And 3 more authors.
Experimental Cell Research | Year: 2015

Lipid metabolism depends on lipid droplets (LD), cytoplasmic structures surrounded by a protein-rich phospholipid monolayer. Although lipid synthesis is the hallmark of sebaceous gland cell differentiation, the LD-associated proteins of sebocytes have not been evaluated systematically.The LD fraction of SZ95 sebocytes was collected by density gradient centrifugation and associated proteins were analyzed by nanoliquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. 54 proteins were significantly enriched in LD fractions, and 6 of them have not been detected previously in LDs. LD fractions contained high levels of typical LD-associated proteins as PLIN2/PLIN3, and most proteins belonged to functional categories characteristic for LD-associated proteins, indicating a reliable dataset. After confirming expression of transcripts encoding the six previously unidentified proteins by qRT-PCR in SZ95 sebocytes and in another sebocyte line (SebE6E7), we focused on two of these proteins, ALDH1A3 and EPHX4. While EPHX4 was localized almost exclusively on the surface of LDs, ALDH1A3 showed a more widespread localization that included additional cytoplasmic structures. siRNA-mediated downregulation revealed that depletion of EPHX4 increases LD size and sebaceous lipogenesis. Further studies on the roles of these proteins in sebocyte physiology and sebaceous lipogenesis may indicate novel strategies for the therapy of sebaceous gland-associated diseases such as acne. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Paz A.H.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Salton G.D.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Ayala-Lugo A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Gomes C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 8 more authors.
Stem Cells and Development | Year: 2011

Betacellulin (BTC), a ligand of the epidermal growth factor receptor, has been shown to promote growth and differentiation of pancreatic β-cells and to improve glucose metabolism in experimental diabetic rodent models. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been already proved to be multipotent. Recent work has attributed to rat and human MSCs the potential to differentiate into insulin-secreting cells. Our goal was to transfect rat MSCs with a plasmid containing BTC cDNA to guide MSC differentiation into insulin-producing cells. Prior to induction of cell MSC transfection, MSCs were characterized by flow cytometry and the ability to in vitro differentiate into mesoderm cell types was evaluated. After rat MSC characterization, these cells were electroporated with a plasmid containing BTC cDNA. Transfected cells were cultivated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium high glucose (H-DMEM) with 10mM nicotinamide. Then, the capability of MSC-BTC to produce insulin in vitro and in vivo was evaluated. It was possible to demonstrate by radioimmunoassay analysis that 104 MSC-BTC cells produced up to 0.4ng/mL of insulin, whereas MSCs transfected with the empty vector (negative control) produced no detectable insulin levels. Moreover, MSC-BTC were positive for insulin in immunohistochemistry assay. In parallel, the expression of pancreatic marker genes was demonstrated by molecular analysis of MSC-BTC. Further, when MSC-BTC were transplanted to streptozotocin diabetic rats, BTC-transfected cells ameliorated hyperglycemia from over 500 to about 200mg/dL at 35 days post-cell transplantation. In this way, our results clearly demonstrate that BTC overabundance enhances glucose-induced insulin secretion in MSCs in vitro as well as in vivo. © 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Dahlhoff M.,Institute of Molecular Animal Breeding and Biotechnology | de Angelis M.H.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | de Angelis M.H.,TU Munich | Wolf E.,Institute of Molecular Animal Breeding and Biotechnology | Schneider M.R.,Institute of Molecular Animal Breeding and Biotechnology
Experimental Dermatology | Year: 2013

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) system is an established regulator of the development and homeostasis of the hair follicle and interfollicular epidermis. Here, we evaluated EGFR actions on the sebaceous glands (SGs) by employing Dsk5 mice, a mutant line in which the EGFR is constitutively activated in a ligand-independent manner. Compared to control littermates, Dsk5 mice showed increased sebum levels and enlarged SGs, which contained a higher number of cells and showed stronger proliferation. c-myc transcript levels were increased in Dsk5 skin, suggesting that c-myc mediates the proliferative stimuli of the EGFR in the SG. Analysis of differentiation markers revealed deregulated expression of Scd1 and Scd3, indicating that sebaceous lipogenesis is affected in Dsk5 mice. In conclusion, our study indicates that the EGFR is an important regulator of presebocyte proliferation, contributing to the final cell number, to the size and to the lipid output of SGs. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Thoeringer C.K.,Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry | Henes K.,Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry | Eder M.,Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry | Dahlhoff M.,Institute of Molecular Animal Breeding and Biotechnology | And 5 more authors.
Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2012

Persistent dreadful memories and hyperarousal constitute prominent psychopathological features of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we used a contextual fear conditioning paradigm to demonstrate that conditional genetic deletion of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptor 1 within the limbic forebrain in mice significantly reduced remote, but not recent, associative and non-associative fear memories. Per os treatment with the selective CRHR1 antagonist DMP696 (3 mg/kg) attenuated consolidation of remote fear memories, without affecting their expression and retention. This could be achieved, if DMP696 was administered for 1 week starting as late as 24 h after foot shock. Furthermore, by combining electrophysiological recordings and western blot analyses, we demonstrate a delayed-onset and long-lasting increase in AMPA receptor (AMPAR) GluR1-mediated signaling in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the dorsal hippocampus 1 month after foot shock. These changes were absent from CRHR1-deficient mice and after DMP696 treatment. Inactivation of hippocampal GluR1-containing AMPARs by antisense oligonucleotides or philantotoxin 433 confirmed the behavioral relevance of AMPA-type glutamatergic neurotransmission in maintaining the high levels of remote fear in shocked mice with intact CRHR1 signaling. We conclude that limbic CRHR1 receptors enhance the consolidation of remote fear memories in the first week after foot shock by increasing the expression of Ca 2+-permeable GluR1-containing AMPARs in the DG. These findings suggest both receptors as rational targets for the prevention and therapy, respectively, of psychopathology associated with exaggerated fear memories, such as PTSD. © 2012 American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. All rights reserved.


Schneider M.R.,Institute of Molecular Animal Breeding and Biotechnology | Kolligs F.T.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich
BioEssays | Year: 2015

Recent studies uncovered critical roles of the adhesion protein E-cadherin in health and disease. Global inactivation of Cdh1, the gene encoding E-cadherin in mice, results in early embryonic lethality due to an inability to form the trophectodermal epithelium. To unravel E-cadherin's functions beyond development, numerous mouse lines with tissue-specific disruption of Cdh1 have been generated. The consequences of E-cadherin loss showed great variability depending on the tissue in question, ranging from nearly undetectable changes to a complete loss of tissue structure and function. This review focuses on these studies and discusses how they provided important insights into E-cadherin's role in cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation, and its consequences for biological processes as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, vascularization, and carcinogenesis. Lastly, we present some perspectives and possible approaches for future research. © 2015 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.


Dahlhoff M.,Institute of Molecular Animal Breeding and Biotechnology | Gerhard M.,TU Munich | Rad R.,TU Munich | Linden S.,Gothenburg University | And 2 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease | Year: 2012

Hyperactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in gastric cells due to excess of its ligand transforming growth factor-α (TGFA) is associated with hyperplastic lesions in Ménétrier's disease patients and in transgenic mice. Other EGFR ligands, however, have never been associated with stomach diseases. Here, we report that overexpression of the EGFR ligand betacellulin (BTC) results in a severe, age-dependent hyperplasia of foveolar epithelium. The stomach weight of affected mice reached up to 3g representing more than 10% of total body weight. The preexisting corpus mucosa was severely depleted, and both parietal and chief cells were replaced by proliferating foveolar epithelium. The lesions were more severe in male as compared to female transgenic mice, and partially regressed in the former after castration-mediated androgen removal. The gastric hyperplasia fully disappeared when BTC-tg mice were crossed into the EgfrWa5 background expressing a dominant-negative EGFR, indicating that the phenotype is EGFR-dependent. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of hyperplastic gastric lesions due to the overexpression of an EGFR ligand other than TGFA. BTC-tg mice are therefore a new, promising model for studying EGFR-dependent gastric polyps. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna and Institute of Molecular Animal Breeding and Biotechnology
Type: | Journal: Molecular and cellular endocrinology | Year: 2015

Although parathyroid hormone (PTH) has long been known to act as a bone anabolic agent when administered intermittently, the exact underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Amphiregulin (AREG), a ligand of the epidermal growth factor receptor, has been identified to be a PTH target gene in vitro and in vivo. Here, we used female global AREG knockout (AREG-KO) mice to explore the role of AREG in mediating the bone anabolic effects of PTH. AREG-KO mice were characterized by unchanged distal femoral cancellous bone mass and only subtle decreases in bone mineral density (BMD) and cortical thickness at the femoral midshaft at 3 and 8 months of age, relative to wildtype controls. AREG deficiency was associated with complex changes in the mRNA expression of other EGFR ligands in femoral cancellous bone osteoblasts in situ in 3-week-old mice. To examine the bone anabolic effects of PTH in the absence and presence of AREG, we injected 3-month-old AREG-KO females and wildtype control littermates with 80 g/kg PTH or vehicle 5 times per week over 4 weeks. Intermittent PTH treatment of AREG-KO mice led to increases in femoral trabecular and cortical BMD, cortical thickness, endocortical and periosteal bone formation, cancellous bone formation rate, and serum osteocalcin, comparable to those observed in wildtype control mice. In conclusion, our data indicate that the bone anabolic effects of PTH do not require AREG, at least in 3-month-old female mice.

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