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Goh L.L.,Singapore Institute of Medical Biology | Ed M.,Singapore Institute of Medical Biology | Ed M.,Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology IMCB
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Rnd3 (RhoE) protein belongs to the unique branch of Rho family GTPases that has low intrinsic GTPase activity and consequently remains constitutively active [1,2]. The current consensus is that Rnd1 and Rnd3 function as important antagonists of RhoA signaling primarily by activating the ubiquitous p190 RhoGAP [3], but not by inhibiting the ROCK family kinases. Methodology/Principal Findings: Rnd3 is abundant in mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells and in an unbiased two-step affinity purification screen we identified a new Rnd3 target, termed synectin-binding RhoA exchange factor (Syx), by mass spectrometry. The Syx interaction with Rnd3 does not occur through the Syx DH domain but utilizes a region similar to the classic Raf1 Ras-binding domain (RBD), and most closely related to those in RGS12 and RGS14. We show that Syx behaves as a genuine effector of Rnd3 (and perhaps Rnd1), with binding characteristics similar to p190-RhoGAP. Morpholinooligonucleotide knockdown of Syx in zebrafish at the one cell stage resulted in embryos with shortened anterior-posterior body axis: this phenotype was effectively rescued by introducing mouse Syx1b mRNA. A Rnd3-binding defective mutant of Syx1b mutated in the RBD (E164A/R165D) was more potent in rescuing the embryonic defects than wild-type Syx1b, showing that Rnd3 negatively regulates Syx activity in vivo. Conclusions/Significance: This study uncovers a well defined Rnd3 effector Syx which is widely expressed and directly impacts RhoA activation. Experiments conducted in vivo indicate that Rnd3 negatively regulates Syx, and that as a RhoA-GEF it plays a key role in early embryonic cell shape changes. Thus a connection to signaling via the planar cell polarity pathway is suggested. © 2010 Goh, Manser. Source

Ingham P.W.,Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology IMCB
Genes and Development | Year: 2012

Inspired by a zebrafish mutation, two recent studies by Creanga and colleagues (pp. 1312-1325) and Tukachinsky and colleagues have shed new light on the way in which lipidated Hedgehog proteins are secreted and released from expressing cells, suggesting a model for the sequential action of the Disp and Scube2 proteins in this process. © 2012 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Source

Vaisman A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | McDonald J.P.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Huston D.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Kuban W.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 4 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2013

Stringent steric exclusion mechanisms limit the misincorporation of ribonucleotides by high-fidelity DNA polymerases into genomic DNA. In contrast, low-fidelity Escherichia coli DNA polymerase V (pol V) has relatively poor sugar discrimination and frequently misincorporates ribonucleotides. Substitution of a steric gate tyrosine residue with alanine (umuC_Y11A) reduces sugar selectivity further and allows pol V to readily misincorporate ribonucleotides as easily as deoxynucleotides, whilst leaving its poor base-substitution fidelity essentially unchanged. However, the mutability of cells expressing the steric gate pol V mutant is very low due to efficient repair mechanisms that are triggered by the misincorporated rNMPs. Comparison of the mutation frequency between strains expressing wild-type and mutant pol V therefore allows us to identify pathways specifically directed at ribonucleotide excision repair (RER). We previously demonstrated that rNMPs incorporated by umuC_Y11A are efficiently removed from DNA in a repair pathway initiated by RNase HII. Using the same approach, we show here that mismatch repair and base excision repair play minimal back-up roles in RER in vivo. In contrast, in the absence of functional RNase HII, umuC_Y11A-dependent mutagenesis increases significantly in ΔuvrA, uvrB5 and ΔuvrC strains, suggesting that rNMPs misincorporated into DNA are actively repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER) in vivo. Participation of NER in RER was confirmed by reconstituting ribonucleotide-dependent NER in vitro. We show that UvrABC nuclease-catalyzed incisions are readily made on DNA templates containing one, two, or five rNMPs and that the reactions are stimulated by the presence of mispaired bases. Similar to NER of DNA lesions, excision of rNMPs proceeds through dual incisions made at the 8th phosphodiester bond 5′ and 4th-5th phosphodiester bonds 3′ of the ribonucleotide. Ribonucleotides misinserted into DNA can therefore be added to the broad list of helix-distorting modifications that are substrates for NER. Source

Cheow L.F.,Microfluidics | Quake S.R.,Microfluidics | Quake S.R.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Burkholder W.F.,Microfluidics | Messerschmidt D.M.,Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology IMCB
Nature Protocols | Year: 2015

This protocol details a method for measuring the DNA methylation state of multiple target sites in single cells, otherwise known as single-cell restriction analysis of methylation (SCRAM). The basic steps include isolating and lysing single cells, digesting genomic DNA with a methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease (MSRE) and amplification of multiple targets by two rounds of PCR to determine the methylation status of target sites. The method can reliably and accurately detect the methylation status of multiple target sites in each single cell, and it can be completed in a relatively short time (<2 d) at low cost. Consequently, the method may be preferable over whole-genome methods in applications requiring highly reliable and cost-effective coverage of specific target sites in all cells from a sample and in cases when the DNA methylation states of single CpG sites are representative of the methylation status of corresponding regions of interest. © 2015 Nature America, Inc. Source

Gill D.J.,Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology IMCB | Clausen H.,Copenhagen University | Bard F.,Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology IMCB
Trends in Cell Biology | Year: 2011

O-GalNAc glycosylation of proteins confers essential structural, protective and signaling roles in eumetazoans. Addition of O-glycans onto proteins is an extremely complex process that regulates both sites of attachment and the types of oligosaccharides added. Twenty distinct polypeptide GalNAc-transferases (GalNAc-Ts) initiate O-glycosylation and fine-tuning their expression provides a mechanism for regulating this action. Recently, a new mode of regulation has emerged where activation of Src kinase selectively redistributes Golgi-localized GalNAc-Ts to the ER. This relocalization results in a strong increase in the density of O-glycan decoration. In this review, we discuss how different mechanisms can regulate the number and the types of O-glycans decorating proteins. In addition, we speculate how Src-dependent relocation of GalNAc-Ts could play an important role in cancerous cellular transformation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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