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Wrocław, Poland

Marycz K.,Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences | Dobrzanski Z.,Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences | Bubel F.,Institute of Opencast Mining | SSmieszek A.,Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences | Grzesiak J.,Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences
Springer Proceedings in Physics

The study aimed at comparison of the results concerning elemental composition of cod and salmon fishbone powders determined using two methods, i.e. scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray analytical system (SEM-EDX) and inductively coupled plasma—optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The research material were fishbone powders ofmarine fish: cod (Gadus morhua) from Baltic Sea and salmon (Salmo salar) from Atlantic Ocean obtained using the method of chemical extraction. The analysis included main mineral elements: calcium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus. The results obtained from SEMEDX appeared to be compliant with the results obtained based on ICP-OES analysis. It was demonstrated that combination of two advanced techniques for fishbone powders characterization is essential for suitable analysis of its quality as well as quantity, especially for subsequent determination of supplements composition. It may be concluded that SEM-EDX method may be successfully used for preliminary analysis of macroelements content in biological material. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014. Source

Bednarczyk Z.,Institute of Opencast Mining
Geotechnical and Geophysical Site Characterization 4 - Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Site Characterization 4, ISC-4

Presented investigations were conducted in the region where over 30% of the area are landslides. Six landslides in flysch deposits were located over the public road and a new bridge in the valley. The soil-rock type layers, were difficult for in-situ and laboratory tests. Site investigations included GPS-RTK mapping, drilling, vane tests and GPR. Laboratory works covered index, direct shear and oedometer tests. Monitoring conducted every month 2006-2011, detected displacements of 5-150 mm, depths of 7-20 m. Slope stability analysis indicated that full remediation will be impossible. Partial stabilization included wire mesh, anchors, gabions and drainage systems. The displacements of 10-15 mm were, however, observed after remediation. They accelerated in 2010, during the record precipitations. The first in Poland landslide real-time monitoring system was installed. It was consist of 3D inclinometers, in-place, pore pressure and meteorological sensors. Data are transferred to the Internet. It should allow better identification of landslide activity and effectiveness of the stabilization works. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group. Source

Bednarczyk Z.,Institute of Opencast Mining
Geotechnical and Geophysical Site Characterization 4 - Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Site Characterization 4, ISC-4

The results of soil investigations for foundations design of underground gas storage on site in Carpathian Mts. are discussed in the paper. By the year 2012, Polish Oil & Gas Company on the depleted gas field "Strachocina" will increase its capacity of 150 mln m3, over two times. In the project the new infrastructure, compressors and gas cold storages will have to be situated on the steep slope formed by flysch deposits. Investigated layers were built of many thin layers of claystone intercalated by sandstone and also covered by mixture of rocks. They were characterized by different strength parameters and complicated tectonically. In the preliminary investigations the investor used only a hand auger, but due to bed recognition of site, the geotechnical investigation report was ordered. A new report contained data of core drillings, undisturbed sampling, different types of geotechnical monitoring, laboratory index, consolidation, IL oedometer, direct shear-box tests and GPR/RAMAC scanning. All investigations detected complicated and folded geological structure which was cut by faults. Significant differences between flat area localized on top with shallow depth of stiff rocks shales (strength of over 4 MPa) and soft colluviums layers in valleys to the north and south were recognized. Precise localization of borders, between these two zones was very difficult due to the vertical inclination of the investigated layers. The laboratory tests results show that soils with the highest moisture content (30-50%) and plasticity index were localized to the depth of 10 m. Liquidity index varied significantly from stiff to soft clays with high plasticity IL =0.5-0.7. Clays, silty loams, gravels and loamy gravels were main soil types. Content of organic/bituminous material was high, in some cases 2-10%. Consolidation tests showed that clayey soils were extremely compressive to the depth of 10 m, what suppose a high subsidence under external loads. Monitoring performed every month in 2009 detected displacements of 8 mm to the depth of 10-16 m. Project area was characterized by low, (0.5-1 m) groundwater level and very high (40 kPa) pore pressure. During construction works (2010) displacements were lowered to ?/-2 mm. Obtained results were used for project modification and verified by LEM and FEM slope stability analysisin order to locate constructions in a save area. It included parameters of colluviums obtained from the laboratory tests øu =7o, cu = 20 kPa. Investigations proved that foundation of infrastructure will be possible, but it requires some changes in construction design. The compressors and buildings have to be situated in upper safe part of a hill. Investor had to resign from building of water reservoir in lower part of the area. Piles foundations, anchors retaining walls and drainage systems were built in some parts of the slope. Infrastructure is now under construction and will be finished till the end of 2012. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group. Source

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