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Poznań, Poland

Zimmer J.,University of Tubingen | Lange B.,University of Tubingen | Frick J.-S.,University of Tubingen | Sauer H.,University of Tubingen | And 6 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2012

Background/Objectives: Consisting of ∼10 14 microbial cells, the intestinal microbiota represents the largest and the most complex microbial community inhabiting the human body. However, the influence of regular diets on the microbiota is widely unknown. Subjects/Methods: We examined faecal samples of vegetarians (n=144), vegans (n=105) and an equal number of control subjects consuming ordinary omnivorous diet who were matched for age and gender. We used classical bacteriological isolation, identification and enumeration of the main anaerobic and aerobic bacterial genera and computed absolute and relative numbers that were compared between groups. Results: Total counts of Bacteroides spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Escherichia coli and Enterobacteriaceae spp. were significantly lower (P=0.001, P=0.002, P=0.006 and P=0.008, respectively) in vegan samples than in controls, whereas others (E. coli biovars, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., other Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp., Citrobacter spp. and Clostridium spp.) were not. Subjects on a vegetarian diet ranked between vegans and controls. The total microbial count did not differ between the groups. In addition, subjects on a vegan or vegetarian diet showed significantly (P=0.0001) lower stool pH than did controls, and stool pH and counts of E. coli and Enterobacteriaceae were significantly correlated across all subgroups. Conclusions: Maintaining a strict vegan or vegetarian diet results in a significant shift in the microbiota while total cell numbers remain unaltered. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

Stawczyk-Eder K.,Poznan University of Medical Sciences | Eder P.,Poznan University of Medical Sciences | Lykowska-Szuber L.,Poznan University of Medical Sciences | Krela-Kazmierczak I.,Poznan University of Medical Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Archives of Medical Science | Year: 2015

Introduction: There are data suggesting that the diagnostic usefulness of faecal calprotectin (FC) may vary depending on the Crohn's disease (CD) location. The aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic usefulness of FC in CD patients with different disease locations. Material and methods: We prospectively enrolled 120 CD patients in the study. Disease activity was assessed by using Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI), biochemical markers, and endoscopic and radiographic methods. Faecal calprotectin concentration was assessed in single stool samples by using the ELISA method. Results: Among all patients, 54 (45%) had ileocolonic CD location, 44 (36.5%) had isolated small bowel location, and 22 (18.5%) had colonic CD location. FC correlated significantly with C-reactive protein concentration and endoscopic and radiographic activity among patients with isolated small bowel CD (p = 0.03, r = 0.32; p < 0.0001, r = 0.78; p = 0.03, r = 0.35; respectively) and with C-reactive protein and endoscopic activity in isolated colonic CD ( p = 0.0009, r = 0.7; p = 0.0002, r = 0.78; respectively). CDAI and inflammatory biochemical markers did not correlate with endoscopic and radiographic assessment in small bowel CD. In patients with ileocolonic CD, FC correlated significantly with endoscopy (p = 0.006, r = 0.5), radiographic assessment (p = 0.04, r = 0.3), CDAI (p = 0.0006, r = 0.5) and the majority of biochemical markers. Conclusions: Faecal calprotectin is a useful diagnostic marker in all CD patients. Although its usefulness in small bowel CD seems to be the lowest, it should be utilized particularly in this disease location because of the lack of other reliable, non-invasive diagnostic methods. Copyright © 2015 Termedia & Banach. Source

Schwiertz A.,Institute of Microecology | Taras D.,Free University of Berlin | Schafer K.,Free University of Berlin | Beijer S.,University of Groningen | And 3 more authors.
Obesity | Year: 2010

Obesity has recently been linked to the composition of human microbiota and the production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). However, these findings rely on experimental studies carried out using rather small and defined groups of volunteers or model animals. Our aim was to evaluate differences within the human intestinal microbiota and fecal SCFA concentration of lean and obese subjects. A total of 98 subjects volunteered to take part in this study. The BMI in kg/m 2 of 30 volunteers was within the lean range, 35 were overweight and 33 were obese. The fecal microbiota was characterized by real-time PCR analyses. With the primers used herein we were able to cover 82.3% (interquartile range of 68.3-91.4%) of the total microbiota detectable with a universal primer. In addition, the concentration of SCFA was evaluated. The total amount of SCFA was higher in the obese subject group (P = 0.024) than in the lean subject group. The proportion of individual SCFA changed in favor of propionate in overweight (P = 0.019) and obese subjects (P = 0.028). The most abundant bacterial groups in faeces of lean and obese subjects belonged to the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. The ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes changed in favor of the Bacteroidetes in overweight (P = 0.001) and obese subjects (P = 0.005). Our results are in line with previous reports suggesting that SCFA metabolism might play a considerable role in obesity. However, our results contradict previous reports with regard to the contribution of various bacterial groups to the development of obesity and this issue remains controversial. Source

Eder P.,Poznan University of Medical Sciences | Stawczyk-Eder K.,Poznan University of Medical Sciences | Lykowska-Szuber L.,Poznan University of Medical Sciences | Krela-Kazmierczak I.,Poznan University of Medical Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnetrznej | Year: 2014

INTRODUCTION: Fecal calprotectin is a useful diagnostic marker in the assessment of Crohn's disease (CD) activity. However, the clinical picture of CD is diverse and its phenotypes change with disease duration: in the early phase, an inflammatory activity dominates and, with time, an increasing percentage of patients develop strictures and fistulas. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess whether disease duration affects the diagnostic utility of fecal calprotectin measurement in patients with CD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 150 patients with CD were prospectively enrolled into the study. CD activity was assessed by magnetic resonance enterography by calculating the Simple Enterographic Activity Score for Crohn's Disease. Endoscopic activity was assessed using the Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn's Disease (SES-CD). The blood levels of inflammatory markers and the fecal calprotectin concentration were assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients were divided into 2 subgroups depending on CD duration: less than 10 years and 10 years or longer from the diagnosis. RESULTS: Patients with longer disease duration had lower inflammatory CD activity assessed by biochemical, endoscopic, and radiographic tests. Fecal calprotectin showed a tendency for lower concentrations in this subgroup (106.5 ±93.2 mg/l vs. 135.7 ±128.8 mg/l; P >0.05). A stricturing or penetrating CD phenotype was observed significantly more often in patients with long-lasting CD (P <0.04). Nevertheless, in both study subgroups, fecal calprotectin was significantly correlated with SES-CD, C-reactive protein levels, and platelet count. CONCLUSIONS: Disease duration and time-dependent changes of the CD phenotype do not affect the diagnostic utility of the fecal calprotectin measurement. Reliability of this noninvasive biochemical method in the assessment of disease activity is similar in all patients with CD; therefore, it may be used independently of the time from diagnosis. Copyright © by Medycyna Praktyczna, Kraków 2014. Source

Mroczynska M.,Technical University of Lodz | Galecka M.,Institute of Microecology | Szachta P.,Institute of Microecology | Kamoda D.,Technical University of Lodz | And 2 more authors.
Polish Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2013

The aim of the study was to analyze the differences in the activity of β-glucuronidase and β-glucosidase in stool specimens of children with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) and healthy subjects. The disease activity was determined according to the PCDAI scale (Crohn disease) and Truelove-Witts scale (Ulcerative colitis). Enzyme activity was determined by spectrophotometry. There was a correlation between the level of β - glucosidase activity in stool and patient's age in the group of healthy controls, but not in the IBD group. β-glucosidase activity in IBD and healthy subjects stool specimens did not differ significantly. The activity of β-glucuronidase in children with IBD was two times lower than in the healthy group and was correlated with age in children with IBD, but not in the group of healthy ones. Source

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