Poznań, Poland
Poznań, Poland

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Galecka M.,Institute of Microecology | Szachta P.,Institute of Microecology | Bartnicka A.,Institute of Microecology | Cichy W.,Poznan University of Medical Sciences
Przeglad Gastroenterologiczny | Year: 2013

IgG-dependent allergy may be one of the causative or perpetuating factors for gastrointestinal diseases, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Reactions in which IgG antibodies are involved result in more delayed responses compared to IgE-dependent allergy. Abnormal IgG-dependent reactions to food lead to the formation of immune complexes and, as a result, to the development of chronic inflammation. In spite of that, IgG-dependent allergy is considered controversial, as some scientists consider these reactions physiological. An elimination diet based on the results of IgG testing against specific food antigens is be - neficial in the treatment of IBS and IBD.


Galecka M.,Institute of Microecology | Szachta P.,Institute of Microecology | Bartnicka A.,Institute of Microecology | Lykowska-Szuber L.,Poznan University of Medical Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Polish Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2013

The aim of the study was evaluation of the correlation between the level of clinical activity of Crohn's disease (CD) and the number of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, total number of bacteria and the concentration of selected short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in stool. 34 individuals diagnosed with Crohn's disease participated in this study in 2011. The disease activity was determined according to the Crohn Disease Activity Index (CDAI). The number of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and total number of bacteria were monitored by RT-PCR. The concentrations of SCFA were determined by gas chromatography. In CD patients, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii number and percentage of the total number of bacteria were greatly reduced. In patients with CD the percentage of acetate was elevated (70%), while the percentages of propionate and butyrate were significantly reduced (14.9% and 7.99%, respectively).


Zimmer J.,University of Tübingen | Lange B.,University of Tübingen | Frick J.-S.,University of Tübingen | Sauer H.,University of Tübingen | And 6 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2012

Background/Objectives: Consisting of ∼10 14 microbial cells, the intestinal microbiota represents the largest and the most complex microbial community inhabiting the human body. However, the influence of regular diets on the microbiota is widely unknown. Subjects/Methods: We examined faecal samples of vegetarians (n=144), vegans (n=105) and an equal number of control subjects consuming ordinary omnivorous diet who were matched for age and gender. We used classical bacteriological isolation, identification and enumeration of the main anaerobic and aerobic bacterial genera and computed absolute and relative numbers that were compared between groups. Results: Total counts of Bacteroides spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Escherichia coli and Enterobacteriaceae spp. were significantly lower (P=0.001, P=0.002, P=0.006 and P=0.008, respectively) in vegan samples than in controls, whereas others (E. coli biovars, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., other Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp., Citrobacter spp. and Clostridium spp.) were not. Subjects on a vegetarian diet ranked between vegans and controls. The total microbial count did not differ between the groups. In addition, subjects on a vegan or vegetarian diet showed significantly (P=0.0001) lower stool pH than did controls, and stool pH and counts of E. coli and Enterobacteriaceae were significantly correlated across all subgroups. Conclusions: Maintaining a strict vegan or vegetarian diet results in a significant shift in the microbiota while total cell numbers remain unaltered. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Schwiertz A.,Institute of Microecology | Taras D.,Free University of Berlin | Schafer K.,Free University of Berlin | Beijer S.,University of Groningen | And 3 more authors.
Obesity | Year: 2010

Obesity has recently been linked to the composition of human microbiota and the production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). However, these findings rely on experimental studies carried out using rather small and defined groups of volunteers or model animals. Our aim was to evaluate differences within the human intestinal microbiota and fecal SCFA concentration of lean and obese subjects. A total of 98 subjects volunteered to take part in this study. The BMI in kg/m 2 of 30 volunteers was within the lean range, 35 were overweight and 33 were obese. The fecal microbiota was characterized by real-time PCR analyses. With the primers used herein we were able to cover 82.3% (interquartile range of 68.3-91.4%) of the total microbiota detectable with a universal primer. In addition, the concentration of SCFA was evaluated. The total amount of SCFA was higher in the obese subject group (P = 0.024) than in the lean subject group. The proportion of individual SCFA changed in favor of propionate in overweight (P = 0.019) and obese subjects (P = 0.028). The most abundant bacterial groups in faeces of lean and obese subjects belonged to the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. The ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes changed in favor of the Bacteroidetes in overweight (P = 0.001) and obese subjects (P = 0.005). Our results are in line with previous reports suggesting that SCFA metabolism might play a considerable role in obesity. However, our results contradict previous reports with regard to the contribution of various bacterial groups to the development of obesity and this issue remains controversial.


Schwiertz A.,Institute of Microecology | Jacobi M.,Institute of Microecology | Frick J.-S.,University of Tübingen | Richter M.,University Hospital Freiburg | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2010

Objective: To test the hypothesis that compared with controls, children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) exhibit differences in the relationships between gut microbiota and disease activity. Study design: Children and adolescents (n = 69; median age, 14 years) with IBD and 25 healthy controls (median age, 14 years) were recruited for the study. The disease activity was determined according to the Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index or the Pediatric Crohn Disease Activity Index. Cell counts of 9 bacterial groups and species in the fecal microbiota were monitored by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Results: Although no major changes were observed in patients with ulcerative colitis, except for a decrease in bifidobacteria in the active state of IBD, children with active and inactive Crohn's disease (CD) had lower numbers of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and bifidobacteria (P <.05), and patients with active CD had higher numbers of Escherichia coli (P <.05). Conclusions: The microbiota in children with CD is characterized by decreased numbers of F praunsitzii and increased numbers of E coli. Copyright © 2010 Mosby Inc.


Roszak D.,Poznan University of Medical Sciences | Galecka M.,Institute of Microecology | Cichy W.,Poznan University of Medical Sciences | Szachta P.,Institute of Microecology
Advances in Medical Sciences | Year: 2015

Purpose The optimization of procedure evaluating the severity of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) using non-invasive methods. Patients/methods One hundred and nine children with IBD hospitalized in gastroenterology ward between 2009 and 2011 participated in the study. Activity of the disease was evaluated in each patient. Concentration of three inflammatory markers: dimeric form of tumor pyruvate kinase (M2-PK), calprotectin and lactoferrin was evaluated using immunoenzymatic tests. Results Existence of a significant correlation between the faecal level of all tested markers and the stage of clinical activity of the disease was demonstrated in children with IBD, both in Crohn's disease (M2-PK p < 0.01; calprotectin p = 0.005; lactoferrin p < 0.01) and in ulcerative colitis group (M2-PK p < 0.01; calprotectin p = 0.004; lactoferrin p < 0.01). A significant difference in the level of markers was found between children with unclassified colitis and the group of patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, but there was no difference between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The increase in the level of one marker correlated with increasing level of other markers (p < 0.01). Faecal markers seem to correlate well with majority of indicators of inflammatory condition in blood. Conclusions Measuring M2-PK, lactoferrin and calprotectin levels in faeces seem to be a useful indicator of the level of disease activity in children with IBD. © 2015 Medical University of Bialystok.


PubMed | University of Tübingen, SymbioPharm GmbH, Maastricht University, Institute of Microecology and Center for Behavioral Medicine
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016

The gut microbiota not only influences host metabolism but can also affect brain function and behaviour through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. To explore the potential role of the intestinal microbiota in anorexia nervosa (AN), we comprehensively investigated the faecal microbiota and short-chain fatty acids in these patients before (n=55) and after weight gain (n=44) in comparison to normal-weight participants (NW, n=55) along with dietary intake and gastrointestinal complaints. We show profound microbial perturbations in AN patients as compared to NW participants, with higher levels of mucin-degraders and members of Clostridium clusters I, XI and XVIII and reduced levels of the butyrate-producing Roseburia spp. Branched-chain fatty acid concentrations, being markers for protein fermentation, were elevated. Distinct perturbations in microbial community compositions were observed for individual restrictive and binge/purging AN-subtypes. Upon weight gain, microbial richness increased, however perturbations in intestinal microbiota and short chain fatty acid profiles in addition to several gastrointestinal symptoms did not recover. These insights provide new leads to modulate the intestinal microbiota in order to improve the outcomes of the standard therapy.


PubMed | Medical University of Warsaw and Institute of Microecology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Transplantation proceedings | Year: 2016

Changes within the gut microbiota contribute to the progression of chronic liver diseases. According to the results of several studies performed in animal models, gut dysbiosis plays an important role in hepatocarcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to explore the characteristics of gut microbiota associated with the presence of hepatocellular cancer (HCC) in patients with cirrhosis of the liver undergoing liver transplantation.A total of 15 patients with HCC and 15 non-HCC patients matched according to etiology of cirrhosis and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores who underwent liver transplantations between 2012 and 2014 were included. Analysis of their gut microbial profile was based on prospectively collected stool samples from the pretransplant period.Patients with and without HCC were similar with respect to age (P= .506), sex (P= .700), hepatitis C virus (P> .999) and hepatitis B virus (P= .715) infection status, alcoholic liver disease (P> .999), and MELD score (P= .337). Notably, the presence of HCC was associated with significantly increased fecal counts of Escherichia coli (P= .025). Prediction of HCC presence based on E coli counts was associated with the area under the receiver-operating curve of 0.742 (95% confidence interval, 0.564-0.920), with the optimal cutoff on the level of 17.728 (natural logarithm of colony-forming units per 1g of feces). Sensitivity and specificity rates for the established cutoff were 66.7% and 73.3%, respectively.The profile of gut microbiota associated with the presence of HCC in cirrhotic patients is characterized by increased fecal counts of E coli. Therefore, intestinal overgrowth of E coli may contribute to the process of hepatocarcinogenesis.


PubMed | Poznan University of Medical Sciences and Institute of Microecology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Advances in medical sciences | Year: 2015

The optimization of procedure evaluating the severity of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) using non-invasive methods.One hundred and nine children with IBD hospitalized in gastroenterology ward between 2009 and 2011 participated in the study. Activity of the disease was evaluated in each patient. Concentration of three inflammatory markers: dimeric form of tumor pyruvate kinase (M2-PK), calprotectin and lactoferrin was evaluated using immunoenzymatic tests.Existence of a significant correlation between the faecal level of all tested markers and the stage of clinical activity of the disease was demonstrated in children with IBD, both in Crohns disease (M2-PK p<0.01; calprotectin p=0.005; lactoferrin p<0.01) and in ulcerative colitis group (M2-PK p<0.01; calprotectin p=0.004; lactoferrin p<0.01). A significant difference in the level of markers was found between children with unclassified colitis and the group of patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohns disease, but there was no difference between Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis. The increase in the level of one marker correlated with increasing level of other markers (p<0.01). Faecal markers seem to correlate well with majority of indicators of inflammatory condition in blood.Measuring M2-PK, lactoferrin and calprotectin levels in faeces seem to be a useful indicator of the level of disease activity in children with IBD.


PubMed | University of Leipzig and Institute of Microecology
Type: | Journal: BMC complementary and alternative medicine | Year: 2016

Hitherto no study has been published on the effect of the adjunctive administration of essential oils following scaling and root planing (SRP). This study describes the effect of a mouthrinse consisting of essential oils (Cymbopogon flexuosus, Thymus zygis and Rosmarinus officinalis) following SRP by clinical and microbiological variables in patients with generalized moderate chronic periodontitis.Forty-six patients (aged 40-65 years) with moderate chronic periodontitis were randomized in a double-blind study and rinsed their oral cavity following SRP with an essential oil mouthrinse (n=23) or placebo (n=23) for 14days. Probing depth (PD), attachment level (AL), bleeding on probing (BOP) and modified sulcus bleeding index (SBI) were recorded at baseline and after 3 and 6months. Subgingival plaque was taken for assessment of major bacteria associated with periodontitis.AL, PD, BOP and SBI were significantly improved in both groups after three (p<0.001) and 6 months (p0.015). AL improved significantly better in the test than in the control group after 3 and 6 months (p<0.001), so did PD after three months in the tendency (p=0.1). BOP improved better in the test group after 3 months (p=0.065). Numbers of Treponema denticola (p=0.044) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (p=0.029) decreased more in the test than in the control group after 3 months, those of Tannerella forsythia after 6 months(p=0.039). Prevotella micra (p<0.001,p=0.035) and Campylobacterrectus (p=0.002,p=0.012) decreased significantly in both groups after 3 months.The adjunctive use of a mouthrinse containing essential oils following SRP has a positive effect on clinical variables and on bacterial levels in the subgingival biofilm.332-12-24092012, DRKS 00009387, German Clinical Trials Register, Freiburg i. Br., 16.09.2015.

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