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Pospisek M.,Charles University | Valasek L.,Institute of Microbiology AVCR
Methods in Enzymology | Year: 2013

More than one 80 S monosome can translate an mRNA molecule at a time producing polysomes. The most widely used method to separate 40 S and 60 S ribosomal subunits from 80 S monosomes and polysomes is a high-velocity centrifugation of whole cell extracts in linear sucrose gradients. This polysome profile analysis technique has been routinely used to monitor translational fitness of cells under a variety of physiological conditions, to investigate functions of initiation factors involved in translation, to reveal defects in ribosome biogenesis, to determine roles of 5′ UTR structures on mRNA translatability, and more recently for examination of miRNA-mediated translational repression (see an application of this protocol on Polysome analysis for determining mRNA and ribosome association in Saccharomyces cerevisiae). © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Cuchalova L.,Institute of Microbiology AVCR | Kouba T.,Institute of Microbiology AVCR | Herrmannova A.,Institute of Microbiology AVCR | Danyi I.,Institute of Microbiology AVCR | And 2 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Biology | Year: 2010

Recent reports have begun unraveling the details of various roles of individual eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) subunits in translation initiation. Here we describe functional characterization of two essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae eIF3 subunits, g/Tif35 and i/Tif34, previously suggested to be dispensable for formation of the 48S preinitiation complexes (PICs) in vitro. A triple-Ala substitution of conserved residues in the RRM of g/Tif35 (g/tif35-KLF) or a single-point mutation in the WD40 repeat 6 of i/Tif34 (i/tif34-Q258R) produces severe growth defects and decreases the rate of translation initiation in vivo without affecting the integrity of eIF3 and formation of the 43S PICs in vivo. Both mutations also diminish induction of GCN4 expression, which occurs upon starvation via reinitiation. Whereas g/tif35-KLF impedes resumption of scanning for downstream reinitiation by 40S ribosomes terminating at upstream open reading frame 1 (uORF1) in the GCN4 mRNA leader, i/tif34-Q258R prevents full GCN4 derepression by impairing the rate of scanning of posttermination 40S ribosomes moving downstream from uORF1. In addition, g/tif35-KLF reduces processivity of scanning through stable secondary structures, and g/Tif35 specifically interacts with Rps3 and Rps20 located near the ribosomal mRNA entry channel. Together these results implicate g/Tif35 and i/Tif34 in stimulation of linear scanning and, specifically in the case of g/Tif35, also in proper regulation of the GCN4 reinitiation mechanism. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Chiu W.-L.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Wagner S.,Institute of Microbiology AVCR | Herrmannova A.,Institute of Microbiology AVCR | Burela L.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 5 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Biology | Year: 2010

The C-terminal domain (CTD) of the a/Tif32 subunit of budding yeast eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) interacts with eIF3 subunits j/Hcr1 and b/Prt1 and can bind helices 16 to 18 of 18S rRNA, suggesting proximity to the mRNA entry channel of the 40S subunit. We have identified substitutions in the conserved Lys-Glu-Arg-Arg (KERR) motif and in residues of the nearby box6 element of the a/Tif32 CTD that impair mRNA recruitment by 43S preinitiation complexes (PICs) and confer phenotypes indicating defects in scanning and start codon recognition. The normally dispensable CTD of j/Hcr1 is required for its binding to a/Tif32 and to mitigate the growth defects of these a/Tif32 mutants, indicating physical and functional interactions between these two domains. The a/Tif32 CTD and the j/Hcr1 N-terminal domain (NTD) also interact with the RNA recognition motif (RRM) in b/Prt1, and mutations in both subunits that disrupt their interactions with the RRM increase leaky scanning of an AUG codon. These results, and our demonstration that the extreme CTD of a/Tif32 binds to Rps2 and Rps3, lead us to propose that the a/Tif32 CTD directly stabilizes 43S subunit-mRNA interaction and that the b/Prt1-RRM-j/Hcr1-a/Tif32- CTD module binds near the mRNA entry channel and regulates the transition between scanning-conducive and initiation-competent conformations of the PIC. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Kouba T.,Institute of Microbiology AVCR | Rutkai E.,Institute of Microbiology AVCR | Karaskova M.,Institute of Microbiology AVCR | Valasek L.S.,Institute of Microbiology AVCR
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2012

Several subunits of the multifunctional eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) contain well-defined domains. Among them is the conserved bipartite PCI domain, typically serving as the principal scaffold for multisubunit 26S proteasome lid, CSN and eIF3 complexes, which constitutes most of the C-terminal region of the c/NIP1 subunit. Interestingly, the c/NIP1-PCI domain is exceptional in that its deletion, despite being lethal, does not affect eIF3 integrity. Here, we show that a short C-terminal truncation and two clustered mutations directly disturbing the PCI domain produce lethal or slow growth phenotypes and significantly reduce amounts of 40S-bound eIF3 and eIF5 in vivo. The extreme C-terminus directly interacts with blades 1-3 of the small ribosomal protein RACK1/ASC1, which is a part of the 40S head, and, consistently, deletion of the ASC1 coding region likewise affects eIF3 association with ribosomes. The PCI domain per se shows strong but unspecific binding to RNA, for the first time implicating this typical protein-protein binding domain in mediating protein-RNA interactions also. Importantly, as our clustered mutations severely reduce RNA binding, we conclude that the c/NIP1 C-terminal region forms an important intermolecular bridge between eIF3 and the 40S head region by contacting RACK1/ASC1 and most probably 18S rRNA. © 2011 The Author(s).

ElAntak L.,University of Cambridge | ElAntak L.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Wagner S.,University of Cambridge | Wagner S.,Institute of Microbiology AVCR | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Biology | Year: 2010

Despite recent progress in our understanding of the numerous functions of individual subunits of eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 3, little is known on the molecular level. Using NMR spectroscopy, we determined the first solution structure of an interaction between eIF3 subunits. We revealed that a conserved tryptophan residue in the human eIF3j N-terminal acidic motif (NTA) is held in the helix α1 and loop 5 hydrophobic pocket of the human eIF3b RNA recognition motif (RRM). Mutating the corresponding "pocket" residues in its yeast orthologue reduces cellular growth rate, eliminates eIF3j/HCR1 association with eIF3b/PRT1 in vitro and in vivo, affects 40S occupancy of eIF3, and produces a leaky scanning defect indicative of a deregulation of the AUG selection process. Unexpectedly, we found that the N-terminal half of eIF3j/HCR1 containing the NTA is indispensable and sufficient for wild-type growth of yeast cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that deletion of either j/HCR1 or its N-terminal half only, or mutation of the key tryptophan residues results in the severe leaky scanning phenotype partially suppressible by overexpressed eIF1A, which is thought to stabilize properly formed preinitiation complexes at the correct start codon. These findings indicate that eIF3j/HCR1 remains associated with the scanning preinitiation complexes and does not dissociate from the small ribosomal subunit upon mRNA recruitment, as previously believed. Finally, we provide further support for earlier mapping of the ribosomal binding site for human eIF3j by identifying specific interactions of eIF3j/HCR1 with small ribosomal proteins RPS2 and RPS23 located in the vicinity of the mRNA entry channel. Taken together, we propose that eIF3j/HCR1 closely cooperates with the eIF3b/PRT1 RRM and eIF1A on the ribosome to ensure proper formation of the scanning-arrested conformation required for stringent AUG recognition. © 2009 Elsevier Inc.

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