Time filter

Source Type

Lehneck R.,Institute of Microbiology and Genetics | Poggeler S.,Institute of Microbiology and Genetics | Poggeler S.,University of Gottingen
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2014

Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are metalloenzymes that catalyze the interconversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen carbonate. CAs are distributed over all the three domains of life and are divided into five distinct evolutionarily unrelated gene families (α, β, γ, δ, ζ). In the large fungal kingdom, the majority of fungi encode multiple copies of β-CAs, with some also possessing genes for α-class CAs. Hemiascomycetous and basidiomycetous yeasts encode one or two β-CAs, while most of the filamentous ascomycetes have multiple copies of genes encoding α- and β-CAs. The functions of fungal β-CAs have been investigated intensively, while the role of fungal α-CAs is mostly unknown. The β-CAs are involved in sexual development, CO2-sensing, pathogenicity, and survival in ambient air. Only recently, researchers have begun to use functional and structural data of CAs from pathogenic and non-pathogenic organisms to develop powerful and effective drugs and inhibitors or to identify enzymes that can be utilized in industrial applications. Despite the large number of fungal CAs known, only five have been characterized structurally: the α-CA AoCA of Aspergillus oryzae, the full length β-CA Can2 from the pathogenic basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans, the N-terminally truncated Saccharomyces cerevisiae β-CA Nce103, and two β-CAs of Sordaria macrospora. This review focuses on the functional and structural properties of fungal CAs. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Reker D.,Institute of Microbiology and Genetics | Reker D.,TU Darmstadt | Katzenbeisser S.,TU Darmstadt | Hamacher K.,Institute of Microbiology and Genetics
Computational Biology and Chemistry | Year: 2010

Understanding evolution at the sequence level is one of the major research visions of bioinformatics. To this end, several abstract models - such as Hidden Markov Models - and several quantitative measures - such as the mutual information - have been introduced, thoroughly investigated, and applied to several concrete studies in molecular biology. With this contribution we want to undertake a first step to merge these approaches (models and measures) for easy and immediate computation, e.g. for a database of a large number of externally fitted models (such as PFAM). Being able to compute such measures is of paramount importance in data mining, model development, and model comparison. Here we describe how one can efficiently compute the mutual information of a homogenous Hidden Markov Model orders of magnitude faster than with a naive, straight-forward approach. In addition, our algorithm avoids sampling issues of real-world sequences, thus allowing for direct comparison of various models. We applied the method to genomic sequences and discuss properties as well as convergence issues. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Klix V.,Institute of Microbiology and Genetics | Nowrousian M.,Ruhr University Bochum | Ringelberg C.,The New School | Loros J.J.,The New School | And 2 more authors.
Eukaryotic Cell | Year: 2010

Mating-type genes in fungi encode regulators of mating and sexual development. Heterothallic ascomycete species require different sets of mating-type genes to control nonself-recognition and mating of compatible partners of different mating types. Homothallic (self-fertile) species also carry mating-type genes in their genome that are essential for sexual development. To analyze the molecular basis of homothallism and the role of mating-type genes during fruiting-body development, we deleted each of the three genes, SmtA-1 (MAT1-1-1), SmtA-2 (MAT1-1-2), and SmtA-3 (MAT1-1-3), contained in the MAT1-1 part of the mating-type locus of the homothallic ascomycete species Sordaria macrospora. Phenotypic analysis of deletion mutants revealed that the PPF domain protein-encoding gene SmtA-2 is essential for sexual reproduction, whereas the domain protein-encoding genes SmtA-1 and SmtA-3 play no role in fruiting-body development. By means of cross-species microarray analysis using Neurospora crassa oligonucleotide microarrays hybridized with S. macrospora targets and quantitative real-time PCR, we identified genes expressed under the control of SmtA-1 and SmtA-2. Both genes are involved in the regulation of gene expression, including that of pheromone genes. © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. Source

Discover hidden collaborations