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Jurasz J.,AGH University of Science and Technology | Wdowikowski M.,Institute of Meteorology and Water Management NRI
E3S Web of Conferences | Year: 2017

Hydroelectricity is generally perceived as a stable and predictable power source. However ROR power plant without reservoir energy output is mainly driven by changing flow rate. This study applies artificial neural networks to create flow rate forecasts with one hour lead time. Forecasting models were built for Nysa Kłodzka catchment which possesses significant potential for new hydropower plants development as well as leads to frequent floods. The best of the obtained model gives satisfactory results both in terms of root mean square error (0.6379 m3/s) as well as Nash-Sutcliffe performance indicator (0.9978). Obtained results were compared with currently used forecasting models and were proven to be superior. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

Toulios L.,Greek National Agricultural Research Foundation | Romaguera M.,University of Twente | Calleja E.,University of Malta | Stancalie G.,National Meteorological Administration | And 7 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2013

Remote sensing (RS) has long been a useful tool in global and regional applications. The Water Footprint (WF) of a crop is defined as the volume of water consumed for its production, where green and blue WF stand for rain and irrigation water usage. RS provides new tools for global WF assessment and represents an innovative approach to regional and global irrigation mapping, enabling the estimation of green and blue water use. This paper presents an overview of the EU COST Action ES 1106 Assessment of European agriculture water use and trade under climate change (EURO-AGRIWAT), regarding the evaluation of the potential of remote sensing to improve the WF and Virtual Water Trade (VWT) assessment. The main objective is the analysis of the role of satellite data in the suitable models and indices concerned with the analysis of WF and VWT. The main tasks include: an inventory of the existing and near future satellite data records for several European regions that could be used for the WF and VWT assessment; the study of satellite data resolution requirements, in time and space; the analysis of the assimilation of satellite data into models for the determination of green and blue water use; conclusions and recommendations concerning the possibility to integrate remote sensing into WF and VWT accounting. The combination of RS data to assess the volume of irrigation applied, and the green and blue WF faces several limitations with respect to discrepancies in spatial and temporal resolution and data availability, which will be studied. © 2013 SPIE.

Krajny E.,Institute of Meteorology and Water Management NRI | Osrodka L.,Institute of Meteorology and Water Management NRI | Wojtylak M.,Institute of Meteorology and Water Management NRI | Pajek M.,Institute of Meteorology and Water Management NRI | Michalik B.,Central Mining Institute of Poland
WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to identify a situation of stratospheric to tropospheric air mass transport (STT), and then attempt to answer the question whether beryllium (7Be) can be a good marker of stratospheric ozone (O3) origin in the surface boundary layer of the atmosphere (SL) and its role in the tropospheric ozone budget. The sets of data covering the yearly period are examined such as: the daily activity concentration of 7Be and lead (210Pb), the hourly concentration of ground-level ozone O3 and the meteorological parameters measured in SL in a meteorological station located in the town of Raciborz in southern Poland. The data obtained had undergone statistical and Fourier analysis. The data obtained had undergone Fourier analysis in order to eliminate the periodicity associated with, inter alia, the annual variability of solar radiation incoming to the Earth’s surface. Then, based on statistical analysis potential days in which very likely was the occurrence of the so-called phenomenon “stratospheric intrusion” (SI) were identified. The selected periods were then analysed in terms of synoptic assessment of the impact of meteorological conditions on levels of7Be and O3. For the selected case a detailed analysis was carried out based on the surface and upper air observations, satellite remote sensing, profile data and ground-level ozone. The use of trace methods based on the identification of concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides as7Be and210Pb in SL of the atmosphere is complementary to the meteorological analysis for the identification of vertical inflow of air masses rich in ozone from stratosphere to troposphere. © 2014 WIT Press.

Romaguera M.,University of Twente | Toulios L.,Greek National Agricultural Research Foundation | Stancalie G.,National Meteorological Administration | Nertan A.,National Meteorological Administration | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2014

Accurate assessment of water use is an important issue in a globally changing climate and environment, where water is becoming a scarce but essential resource. The concept "?Water Footprint (WF) of a crop is defined as the volume of water consumed for its production, where green and blue WF stand for rain and irrigation water usage, respectively. This indicator provides valuable information for a global assessment of how water resources are used. Remote sensing (RS) provides physically-based, worldwide, and consistent spatial information over space and time, and has been used in hydrological applications in order to estimate relevant variables at different temporal and spatial scales. The paper focuses on exploring and exploiting the potential of using RS techniques and data for WF assessment in agriculture. Based on recent papers initiated in this research topic the investigation focuses on how variables needed in the calculation of water footprint are obtained (based on non RS and on RS approaches), on identifying the inputs required for estimating the WF of crops and whether it is feasible to integrate various RS approaches. The results of this study demonstrate the usefulness of satellite data for water footprint assessment, which were obtained by the Remote Sensing Working Group in the framework of the ESSEM COST Action ES1106, "Assessment of EUROpean AGRIculture WATer use and trade under climate change"? (EURO-AGRIWAT). © 2014 SPIE.

Osowiecki A.,Maritime Institute in Gdansk | Lysiak-Pastuszak E.,Institute of Meteorology and Water Management NRI | Kruk-Dowgiallo L.,Maritime Institute in Gdansk | Blenska M.,Maritime Institute in Gdansk | And 4 more authors.
Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies | Year: 2012

A set of classification methods was developed for the Polish coastal and transitional waters regarding the biological quality elements - phytoplankton, macrophytes and macroinvertebrates as required by the EU Water Framework Directive. Mean summer chlorophyll-a and total summer biomass of phytoplankton were proposed as indicators in the phytoplankton assessment. Macrophytes were assessed by the Macrophyte Quality Assessment Index, including biomass and percent bottom coverage of the selected taxa. Macroinvertebrate assessment was based on a biotic index comprising abundance, dominance structure taxonomical richness and species sensitivity/tolerance to eutrophication. A preliminary assessment of the ecological status revealed that the coastal and transitional waters failed to reach a 'good' ecological status. Copyright © of Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk, POL.

Struzik P.,Institute of Meteorology and Water Management NRI | Kepinska-Kasprzak M.,Institute of Meteorology and Water Management NRI
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2014

One of the main scientific goals of the COST Action ES1106 ("Assessment of European Agriculture Water use and Trade under Climate Change"? EURO-AGRIWAT) is the analysis of the global water footprint (WF) in agriculture and virtual water trade (VWT). The starting point for further activities is analyses and inventory of data and tools which could be helpful for WF and WFT assessments. Evaporation values (ET) are crucial for agriculture where estimates of water reserves available for crops are the basis for scheduling the time and intensity of irrigation, yield prognoses, etc. Detail evapotranspiration data are, therefore, of essential value. However, stations performing direct measurements of evapotranspiration are very scarcely distributed in Poland for which reason the interpolation of the data is necessarily biased. Hence, evapotranspiration values are calculated using indirect methods (usually empirical formulas). Data from geostationary meteorological satellites are used operationally for determination of evapotranspiration with good spatial and temporal resolution (e.g. Land-SAF product). Study of relation between evapotranspiration values determined with use of satellite data and calculated using Penman-Monteith formula was performed for the study area in Poland. Daily values and cumulated (i.e. decadal, monthly and yearly) values were analyzed to determine quality and possible added value of the satellite product. Relation between reference ET and actual ET in two consecutive years was discussed, both for whole test area and individual stations, taking into account land use and possible water deficit in the root region, represented by H-SAF soil wetness index product. The differences were presented and discussed. © 2014 SPIE.

The paper presents the incidence and annual course of extreme weather conditions affecting the functioning of agriculture in the eastern part of Pomeranian Lake District in the years 2001.2010. The mean monthly extreme and absolute extreme temperatures and ground temperatures, the number of freeze, frost and hot days, the number of days with precipitation exceeding . 10 mm, the number of days with snow, with strong and very strong winds (with wind speed exceeding 10 and 15 mE-1), and number of days with hail and storm were analyzed.

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