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Farr J.P.G.,Institute of Metal Finishing
Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing | Year: 2010

This paper reviews and discusses briefly some fundamentals of the electrocrystallisation of silver from cyanide electrolyte that may be significant for the development and application of pulse plating and power modulation in electroplating, especially for the electronics industries. Within the Helmholz double layer slow processes are distinguished from fast. It is concluded that a better knowledge and understanding of the slow stages of electrocrystallisation may come from modern optical studies. It is necessary to relate the phenomenology of electrocrystallisation to the material properties of an electrodeposit, especially to its electrical and thermal conductivities. © 2010 Institute of Metal Finishing. Source


Larson C.,80 Church Lane | Farr J.P.G.,Institute of Metal Finishing
Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing | Year: 2010

The literature on pulsed current deposition over the past 3 years has been examined. The research effort extends over a wide range of metal and alloy systems, with the greater number of publications refl ecting existing and developing importance industrially, e.g., nickel and its alloys, copper for printed circuit boards, composite plating and nanomaterials. However, other applications are approaching industrial production, and there is a clear need for modelling, simulation and statistical experimental design to be introduced to aid the transfer of research results to industrial adoption. © 2010 Institute of Metal Finishing. Source


Larson C.,80 Church Lane | Farr J.P.G.,Institute of Metal Finishing
Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing | Year: 2012

A review of the current research and potential applications for pulsed current electrodeposition is presented. The influence of modulated current on copper plating from acid sulphate solutions is described by Leisner et al. The characteristics of pulse electrodeposited PbS thin films for narrow energy gap semiconductors is investigated by Thirumoorthy and Murali. Photosensitive SnS thin films 350 nm thick have been achieved by pulse electrodeposition with pulse on/off durations of 10 s. Nickchi et al. have fabricated low friction bronze-graphite nanocomposite coatings containing 30 nm sized graphite particles by pulsed current electrodeposition. The feasibility of growing nanostructured films composed of cobalt and yttrium hydroxide/oxide phases by electrodeposition from particle free aqueous solutions containing YCl 3 and CoCl 2 salts and glycine is also demonstrated. Source


Farr J.P.G.,Institute of Metal Finishing
Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing | Year: 2012

Current understanding of some of the electrochemistry that underpins technology and areas where the science base is expanding in a potentially useful way is summarized. It is important to realize that the electric field associated with ion electromigration up to the close proximity of the electrode is insufficient to cause reduction. The charge transfer resistance reflects, not the movement of the electrons, but the creation of a transient population of receptive sites. While many aspects of the fundamentals mentioned so far have not greatly concerned platers or other surface technologists, practical concerns about materials properties of deposits such as hardness, stress, mechanical integrity and corrosion resistance, are however shared. In the laboratory steady state electroplating in the presence of a brightener is also associated with higher polarization than with leveling. Source


Hopper A.,Institute of Metal Finishing | Briggs S.,Institute of Metal Finishing
Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing | Year: 2011

The third annual Materials Ireland conference was held in the Gleason Hall, Dublin Institute of Technology Kevin Street, Dublin, on 13-14 December 2010. Leonard Hobbs, Head of Research at Intel Ireland, gave a very comprehensive address describing the development of a nanotech ecosystem and where he saw the sector in Ireland in 3 years, and how a bottom-up approach to development and manufacturing has created an ecosystem culture. Dr Ann Hopper and The Institute of Metal Finishing sponsored the keynote speaker for the coating session. Dr Mark Tur from the Copper Development Association gave an interesting talk on how copper's antimicrobial properties have been known for almost 4000 years. Laurence Fitzhenry discussed his research on molecularly imprinted polymers, which are materials that contain sites or cavities that can be receptive to a specific molecule or group of molecules. Source

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