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Mazidi S.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Rezaei K.,University of Tehran | Golmakani M.T.,Shiraz University | Sharifan A.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Rezazadeh S.,Institute of Medicinal Plants ACECR
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) at three levels of microwave power (180, 360, and 540 W) and the traditional hydrodistillation (HD) were applied to obtain essential oils from Bunium persicum Boiss. (Black Zira). MAHD at 540 W started much earlier than that of HD (4 min vs. 38 min, respectively). By the time the extraction of essential oils started with HD, almost 50% of the total essential oils (2.15%, w/w yield) had been extracted with MAHD at 540 W. Analysis of the essential oils using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that γ-terpinene (28.16-31.13%, w/w), cuminaldehyde (24.85-29.20%), ρ-cymene (14.67-16.50%) and limonene (6.13-8.28%) were their main constituents, with a similar composition both after HD and MAHD extraction. The antioxidant activity (reported as IC50) of essential oil extracted by HD was 9.31 mg ml-1 and those of MAHD at 180, 360, and 540 W were 8.62, 8.79, and 6.45 mg ml-1, respectively. Microwave irradiation did not cause any adverse effect on the antioxidant activities of the extracted essential oils, therefore, it can be used as a good alternative method to obtain essential oils from B. persicum. Source


Mohammadi M.-R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Hafezi P.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Galeiha A.,Hamadan University of Medical Sciences | Hajiaghaee R.,Institute of Medicinal Plants ACECR | Akhondzadeh S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Acta Medica Iranica | Year: 2012

A recent randomized clinical trial showed buspirone efficacy in the treatment of attentiondeficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. However, results from a recent multi-site controlled clinical trial of transdermal buspirone failed to separate it from placebo in a large sample of children with ADHD. Therefore, due to these inconsistent findings, this study was designed to assess the efficacy of buspirone in the treatment of children with ADHD compared to methylphenidate in a double blind randomized clinical trial. Forty outpatients with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of ADHD were study population of this trial. Subjects were recruited from an outpatient child and adolescent clinic for a 6 week double blind, randomized clinical trial. All study subjects were randomly assigned to receive treatment using tablet of buspirone at a dose of 20-30 mg/day depending on weight (20 mg/day for < 30kg and 30 mg/day for > 30kg) (group 1) or methylphenidate at a dose of 20-30 mg/day depending on weight (20 mg/day for < 30kg and 30 mg/day for > 30kg (group 2) for a 6 week double blind, randomized clinical trial. The principal measure of outcome was the Teacher and Parent ADHD Rating Scale IV. Patients were assessed at baseline and at 21 and 42 days after the medication started. Significant differences were observed between the two groups on the Parent and Teacher Rating Scale scores. The changes at the endpoint compared to baseline were: -8.95±8.73 (mean±SD) and -15.60±7.81 (mean±SD) for buspirone and methyphenidate, for Parent ADHD Rating Scale. The changes at the endpoint compared to baseline were: -9.80 ±7.06 (mean±SD) and -22.40±9.90 (mean±SD) for buspirone and methyphenidate, respectively for Teacher ADHD Rating Scale. The difference between the buspirone and methylphenidate groups in the frequency of side effects was not significant except for decreased appetite, headache and insomnia that were observed more frequently in the methylphenidate group. The results of this study suggest that administration of buspirone was less effective than methylphenidate in the treatment of ADHD. © 2012 Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Source


Saroukhani S.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Emami-Parsa M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Modabbernia A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Ashrafi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Bipolar Disorders | Year: 2013

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of aspirin on lithium-related sexual dysfunction in men with stable bipolar affective disorder (BAD). Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 32 men with stable BAD who had been on lithium maintenance therapy randomly received aspirin (240 mg/day) or placebo for six weeks. The International Index for Erectile Function (IIEF) was used to assess sexual symptoms at baseline, Week 3, and Week 6. Depressive and mania symptoms and plasma lithium concentrations were assessed at baseline and Week 6. Side effects were assessed using a checklist. Results: Thirty patients (15/group) completed the study. Baseline and endpoint lithium concentrations and mania and depressive symptoms did not differ significantly between the two groups. Significant effects of time × treatment interaction were observed for total score [Greenhouse-Geisser: F(1.410,39.466) = 6.084, p = 0.010] and erectile function [Greenhouse-Geisser: F(1.629,45.602) = 7.250, p = 0.003]. By Week 6, patients in the aspirin group showed significantly greater improvement in the total (63.9% improvement from the baseline) and erectile function domain (85.4% improvement from the baseline) scores than the placebo group (14.4% and 19.7% improvement from the baseline, p-values = 0.002 and 0.001, respectively). By Week 6, 12 (80%) patients in the aspirin group and three (20%) patients in the placebo group met the criteria of minimal clinically important change [χ2(1) = 10.800, p = 0.001]. Other IIEF domains also showed significant improvement at the end of the trial. The frequency of side effects was similar between the two groups. Conclusion: Aspirin effectively improves lithium-related sexual dysfunction in men with stable BAD. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source


Zarinara A.-R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Mohammadi M.-R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Hazrati N.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Tabrizi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Human Psychopharmacology | Year: 2010

Objective The present report aimed to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of venlafaxine compared to methylphenidate in children and adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Methods This was a 6-week, parallel group, randomized clinical trial. Thirty-eight patients (27 boys and 11 girls) with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of ADHD were the study population of this trial. All study subjects were randomly assigned to receive treatment using capsules of venlafaxine at doses of 50-75 mg/day depending on weight (50 mg/day for <30 kg and 75 mg/day for >30 kg (group 1) or methylphenidate at a dose of 20-30 mg/day depending on weight (group 2) for a 6-week double blind, randomized clinical trial. The principal measure of outcome was the Teacher and Parent Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale-IV. Results No significant differences were observed between the two groups on the Parent and Teacher Rating Scale scores (df=1; F= 1.77; p = 0.19 and df = 1; F = 1.64; p = 0.20, respectively). Side effects of headaches and insomnia were observed more frequently in the methylphenidate group. Conclusions The results suggest that venlafaxine may be useful for the treatment of ADHD. In addition, a tolerable side-effect profile is one of the advantages of venlafaxine in the treatment of ADHD. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Ghaleiha A.,Hamadan University of Medical Sciences | Asadabadi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Mohammadi M.-R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Shahei M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2013

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes significant impairment in socialization and communication. It is also associated with ritualistic and stereotypical behaviour. Recent studies propose both hyper-and hypoglutamatergic ideologies for autism. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of memantine plus risperidone in the treatment of children with autism. Children with autism were randomly allocated to risperidone plus memantine or placebo plus risperidone for a 10-wk, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The dose of risperidone was titrated up to 3 mg/d and memantine was titrated to 20 mg/d. Children were assessed at baseline and after 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 wk of starting medication protocol. The primary outcome measure was the irritability subscale of Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C). Difference between the two treatment arms was significant as the group that received memantine had greater reduction in ABC-C subscale scores for irritability, stereotypic behaviour and hyperactivity. Eight side-effects were observed over the trial, out of the 25 side-effects that the checklist included. The difference between the two groups in the frequency of side-effects was not significant. The present study suggests that memantine may be a potential adjunctive treatment strategy for autism and it was generally well tolerated. This trial is registered with the Iranian Clinical Trials Registry (IRCT1138901151556N10; www.irct.ir) © 2012 CINP. Source

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