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Zhou C.,China Agricultural University | Wang J.W.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Wang J.W.,China Agricultural University | Huang K.L.,China Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Drug and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2011

Transgenic cloned animals expressing beneficial human nutritional traits offer a new strategy for large-scale production of some kinds of functional substances. In some cases, the required safety testing for genetically modified (GM) foods do not seem appropriate for human food safety, though regulations do not seem to provide alternatives. A 90-day rat feeding study is the core study for the safety assessment of GM foods. The test material in this 90-day study was prepared nonfat milk powder containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF), which was expressed in transgenic cloned cattle. Groups of 10 male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a nutritionally balanced purified diet containing 7.5, 15, or 30% transgenic or conventional milk powder for 90 days. A commercial AIN93G diet was used as an additional control group. Clinical, biological, and pathological parameters were compared between groups. The only significant effect of treatment was higher mean ferritin and Fe + concentrations for both male and female rats fed the transgenic milk powder diets, as compared to rats fed nontransgenic milk diets or the commercial diet. The results of the present study are consistent with previous research, which indicates that milk powder containing rhLF derived from healthy transgenic cloned cattle is as safe as conventional milk powder. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

You Y.,Tsinghua University | Zhu J.,Tsinghua University | Yang Z.,Institute of Medicinal Plant Development
Beijing Hangkong Hangtian Daxue Xuebao/Journal of Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics | Year: 2012

A new envolving data stream clustering algorithm with fault-tolerance characteristic was proposed named FTGDStream (fault-tolerant grid-density clustering over data stream). It introduces appropriate relaxation of conditions for discover generalised knowledge in real world data polluted by noise. First, FTGDStream uses similarity measure technology and lifting wavelet to construct synopsis HLSFTS (hierarchical lifting scheme fault-tolerant synopses) to realize online micro-cluster phase. Second, FTGDStream uses grid-density clustering technology to realize offline macro-cluster phase. High compression ratio of HLSFTS in micro-cluster reduces the computation load of grid-density clustering algorithm in macro-cluster and improves the efficiency of two-layer algorithm. Simulation in UCI data set proves that FTGDStream is able to clustering any shape in data space and suitable for dealing with high-dimensional data streams. FTGDStream is an efficient clustering algorithm with fault-tolerance. Source

Meng X.,Institute of Medicinal Plant Development | Wang M.,Institute of Medicinal Plant Development | Wang X.,Changchun University of Chinese Medicine | Sun G.,Institute of Medicinal Plant Development | And 3 more authors.
Free Radical Research | Year: 2014

Notoginsenoside R1 (NGR1) is a novel phytoestrogen that is isolated from Panax notoginseng. We have recently found that NGR1 showed neuroprotection in vitro against oxidative stress through estrogen receptor (ER)-dependent activation of Akt/Nrf2 pathways. However, whether NGR1 has neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in vivo is unknown. In this study, we used in vivo and in vitro models of cerebral I/R injury that demonstrate middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion in rats, as well as oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reoxygenation (OGD/R) in primary cortical neurons. These models were used to evaluate NGR1 neuroprotection. Three-day pretreatment with NGR1 (20 mg/kg; i.p.) significantly improved neurologic outcomes and reduced cerebral infarct volume. Pretreatment of primary cortical neurons with NGR1 (25 μM) for 24 h prevented apoptosis and oxidative stress induced by OGD/R. NGR1 inhibited apoptosis by inhibiting mitochondrial membrane potential disruption, caspase-3 activation, and DNA fragmentation. NGR1 prevented oxidative stress by suppressing NADPH oxidase- and mitochondrion-derived superoxide and inhibiting production of malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in vivo and in vitro. NGR1 induced ER-dependent activation of Akt/Nrf2 pathways by increasing ERα, ERβ, phospho-Akt, phospho-GSK3β, nuclear Nrf2, and HO-1 expression in vivo and in vitro. Pretreatment with ICI-182780, LY294002, or Snpp abolished NGR1-mediated neuroprotection against oxidative stress and apoptosis in vitro. In conclusion, NGR1 showed neuroprotection against cerebral I/R injury in vivo and in vitro. The mechanism of NGR1 neuroprotection involves inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity and mitochondrial dysfunction via ER-dependent activation of Akt/Nrf2 pathways. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

Liu H.,Institute of Medicinal Plant Development | Liu S.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Liu S.,CAS Institute of Microbiology | Guo L.,CAS Institute of Microbiology | And 3 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2012

Pestalafuranones A-E (compounds 1-5), five new 2(5H)-furanones, have been isolated from cultures of an isolate of Pestalotiopsis besseyi. The structures of these compounds were elucidated mainly by analysis of their NMR spectroscopic data and HRESIMS experiments. Pestalafuranones A-C (compounds 1-3) displayed weak inhibitory effects against HIV-1 replication in C8166 cells, whereas pestalafuranones D (4) and E (5) showed moderate antifungal activity against the plant pathogens Verticillium dahiae and Alternaria longipes. © 2012 by the authors. Source

Wang M.,Institute of Medicinal Plant Development | Lu S.,Institute of Medicinal Plant Development
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2016

Reverse transcription-qPCR (RT-qPCR) has become a popular method for gene expression studies. Its results require data normalization by housekeeping genes. No single gene is proved to be stably expressed under all experimental conditions. Therefore, systematic evaluation of reference genes is necessary. With the aim to identify optimum reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of gene expression in different tissues of Panax ginseng and the seedlings grown under heat stress, we investigated the expression stability of eight candidate reference genes, including elongation factor 1-beta (EF1-β), elongation factor 1-gamma (EF1-γ), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3G1 (IF3G1), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3B (IF3B), actin (ACT), actin11 (ACT11), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and cyclophilin ABH-like protein (CYC), using four widely used computational programs: geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ΔCt method. The results were then integrated using the web-based tool RefFinder. As a result, EF1-γ, IF3G1, and EF1-β were the three most stable genes in different tissues of P. ginseng, while IF3G1, ACT11, and GAPDH were the top three-ranked genes in seedlings treated with heat. Using three better reference genes alone or in combination as internal control, we examined the expression profiles of MAR, a multiple function-associated mRNA-like non-coding RNA (mlncRNA) in P. ginseng. Taken together, we recommended EF1-γ /IF3G1 and IF3G1/ACT11 as the suitable pair of reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of gene expression in different tissues of P. ginseng and the seedlings grown under heat stress, respectively. The results serve as a foundation for future studies on P. ginseng functional genomics. © 2016 Wang and Lu. Source

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