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Bahekar S.E.,Institute of Medical science and Research Center | Kale R.S.,MGIMS
Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine

Background: Use of Manihot esculenta Crantz (MEC) plant has been mentioned in literature of Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute and many others. It is also known commonly as tapioca, continues to be a crop of food security for the millions of people, especially in the developing countries of the globe including India. Medicinal uses of this plant including diarrhea have been mentioned in literature, but scientific evidence is lacking. Objective: The objective was to study antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic leaf extract of MEC in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves in the doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg were used in Wistar rats of either sex. Experimental models used were castor oil-induced intestinal fluid accumulation and charcoal passage test. Loperamide and atropine sulfate were the standard drugs used in these models respectively. Results: MEC extracts decreased intestinal fluid volume in dose dependent manner no extract group was comparable with standard drug loperamide (5 mg/kg). MEC extracts also significantly inhibited gastrointestinal motility in dose dependent manner. MEC (100 mg/kg) and MEC (200 mg/kg) were comparable with standard drug atropine sulfate (5 mg/kg) in this aspect. <0.05 were considered to be significant. Conclusions: Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves exhibited significant antidiarrheal activity by decreasing intestinal fluid accumulation and the gastrointestinal motility in Wistar rats. Source

Bommanahalli B.,Institute of Medical science and Research Center | Bhat R.,Indira Gandhi Medical College | Rupanarayan R.,Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College
Journal of Cytology

Aim: Our study aimed at a cell pattern approach to interpret thyroid cytology and to demonstrate diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) with an emphasis on diagnostic pitfalls. Materials and Methods: A total number of 218 goitre cases, from the year 2000 to 2004, were reviewed retrospectively from the cytology files, without considering the previous cytological diagnosis. Four cases with inadequate aspirate were excluded. The predominant cell pattern, such as macro/normofollicular, microfollicular, papillary, syncytial, dispersed and cystic pattern, was noted in each case. The final diagnosis was arrived by observing the cellular details and background elements. Cytological diagnosis was correlated with histopathology in 75 cases. The sensitivity and specificity were computed. Results: Normo/macrofollicular pattern was seen in 71.96% of nodular goitre and 6.9% of follicular neoplasms. Around 86.2% of follicular neoplasms and 17.6% of papillary carcinoma had microfollicular pattern. The papillary pattern was seen in 47% of papillary carcinoma. Syncytial pattern was noticed in 72.3% of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and 29.4% of papillary carcinoma. Cytological diagnosis was concordant with histopathological diagnosis in 65 cases. Overall sensitivity and specificity of FNAC in diagnosing neoplastic lesions of thyroid were 83.33 and 95.55%, respectively. Conclusion: FNAC is more sensitive and specific in triaging neoplastic from non-neoplastic thyroid lesions. Identification of the predominant cell pattern would be complementary to analysis of cell morphology and background details in cytological diagnosis of thyroid lesions. This approach helps to diagnose follicular neoplasm and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Source

Bahekar S.E.,Institute of Medical science and Research Center | Kale R.S.,Mahatma Gandhi Institute
Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences

Aims: The study aimed to explore the antioxidant activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Manihot esculenta Crantz leaves (MEC) in wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves in the doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg were used in wistar rats of either sex. The oxidative stress was produced by overdose of acetaminophen and estimation of serum concentration of various enzymes such as malonaldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), and catalase (CAT) were measured by standard biochemical methods. Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was used as a standard drug for assessment of antioxidant status. Statistical Analysis Used: Results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Student's unpaired t-test. Results: When compared with the standard antioxidant silymarin, MEC extract did not exhibit antioxidant activity in terms of MDA level reduction. However, it significantly increased serum levels of the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH, and CAT) exerting a potent antioxidant effect in a graded manner. Conclusions: The observed results suggest that MEC could be a potential source of antioxidants. However, further studies are required to explore this therapeutic property of plant. © 2016 Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow 83. Source

Ravikumar S.,Institute of Medical science and Research Center
World Journal of Laparoscopic Surgery

Surgical treatment of incompetent perforating veins of the lower leg performed by open method carries considerable morbidity and also associated with poor wound healing. Subfascial endoscopic perforator surgery (SEPS) is a new, minimally invasive endoscopic technique performed in patients with advanced chronic venous insufficiency. This technique offers an effective treatment alternative which avoids the lengthy incisions of the classical open Linton subfascial ligation techniques. The favorable ulcer healing rate and improvement in clinical symptoms suggest that SEPS is a feasible, safe and effective treatment of the incompetent perforator veins in patients with advanced chronic venous insufficiency. © Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd. Source

Bharati S.M.,Institute of Medical science and Research Center | Singh N.,Armed Forces Medical College
Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics

Objective: To study the effects of losartan and atenolol on glucometabolic parameters in nondiabetic hypertensive patients. Materials and Methods: In a prospective, open-label, parallel group study, nondiabetic patients with mild to moderate hypertension were randomized to either losartan (titrated from 50 to 100 mg/day, n = 20) or atenolol (titrated from 25 mg to 100 mg/day, n = 20) for period of 24 weeks. At baseline, 12 and 24 weeks fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) apart from lipid parameters, mean systolic, and diastolic blood pressures levels were determined. Results: At the end of study, losartan significantly (P < 0.05) reduced FPG, FPI, and HOMA-IR compared to atenolol and baseline. While atenolol increased the HOMA-IR levels significantly compared to the baseline. Conclusions: Losartan improved the insulin sensitivity while atenolol worsened it. Losartan is better than atenolol for its effects on the glucose-insulin metabolism. © 2016 Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. Source

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