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Simo G.,German Cancer Research Center | Simo G.,Institute of Medical Research and Medicinal Plant Studies IMPM | Herder S.,IRD Montpellier | Cuny G.,IRD Montpellier | Hoheisel J.,German Cancer Research Center
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2010

Trypanosoma brucei subspecies undergo establishment and maturation in tsetse flies mid-gut and salivary glands, respectively. Successful establishment of trypanosomes in tsetse mid-gut as well as their migration to saliva gland depends on the ability of these parasites to adapt rapidly to new environmental conditions and to negotiate the physical barriers. To identify subspecies specific genes which are differentially regulated during the establishment of T. brucei subspecies in tsetse flies mid-gut, a comparative genomic analysis between different T. brucei subspecies was performed using microarrays containing about 23 040 T. brucei shotgun fragments. The whole genome analyses of RNA expression profiles revealed about 274 significantly differentially expressed genes between T. brucei subspecies. About 7% of the differentially regulated clones did not match to any T. brucei predicted genes. Most of the differentially regulated transcripts are involved in transport across cell membrane and also in the purines metabolism. The genes selectively up regulated in T. brucei gambiense and T. brucei rhodesiense (human infective T. brucei) like snoRNA and HSP70 are expressed in response to stress. The high failure rate in the process of establishment and maturation of T. brucei gambiense during cyclical transmission in tsetse flies may result from the incapacity of this parasite to regulate its growth due to the expression of a variety of chaperones or heat shock proteins. Genes selectively up regulated in T. brucei brucei like NT8.1 nucleoside/nucleobase transporters and S-adenosylmethionine synthetase may favour the establishment of this subspecies in tsetse mid-gut. These genes appear as potential targets for investigations on the development of vaccine blocking the transmission of trypanosomes in tsetse flies. © 2009. Source

Valerie Passo Tsamo C.,Catholic University of Louvain | Valerie Passo Tsamo C.,Institute of Medical Research and Medicinal Plant Studies IMPM | Andre C.M.,Public Research Center | Ritter C.,Catholic University of Louvain | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

This study aimed at understanding the contribution of the fruit physicochemical parameters to Musa sp. diversity and plantain ripening stages. A discriminant analysis was first performed on a collection of 35 Musa sp. cultivars, organized in six groups based on the consumption mode (dessert or cooking banana) and the genomic constitution. A principal component analysis reinforced by a logistic regression on plantain cultivars was proposed as an analytical approach to describe the plantain ripening stages. The results of the discriminant analysis showed that edible fraction, peel pH, pulp water content, and pulp total phenolics were among the most contributing attributes for the discrimination of the cultivar groups. With mean values ranging from 65.4 to 247.3 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of fresh weight, the pulp total phenolics strongly differed between interspecific and monospecific cultivars within dessert and nonplantain cooking bananas. The results of the logistic regression revealed that the best models according to fitting parameters involved more than one physicochemical attribute. Interestingly, pulp and peel total phenolic contents contributed in the building up of these models. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source

Mouokeu R.S.,Laboratory of Microbiology and Antimicrobial Substances | Ngono R.A.N.,Laboratory of Biochemistry | Lunga P.K.,Laboratory of Microbiology and Antimicrobial Substances | Koanga M.M.,Laboratory of Biochemistry | And 4 more authors.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2011

Background: The emergence in recent years of numerous resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria to a range of formerly efficient antibiotics constitutes a serious threat to public health. Crassocephalum bauchiense, a medicinal herb found in the West Region of Cameroon is used to treat gastrointestinal infections as well as liver disorders. The ethyl acetate extract from the leaves of C. bauchiense was evaluated for its antibacterial activity as well as acute and sub-acute toxicities.Methods: The plant extract was prepared by maceration in ethyl acetate. Its phytochemical screening was done by standard methods. The broth microdilution method was used to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity. The in vivo antibacterial activity of a gel formulation (0.05, 1 and 2% w/v) of this extract was evaluated using a Staphylococcus aureus-induced dermatitis in a murine model. Selected haematological and biochemical parameters were used to evaluate the dermal sub-acute toxicity of the extract in rats.Results: Phytochemical screening of the C. bauchiense extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, tannins and sterols. In vitro antibacterial activities were observed against all the tested microorganisms (MIC = 0.04-6.25 mg/ml). Formulated extract-gel (2% w/v) and gentamycin (reference drug) eradicated the microbial infection after five days of treatment. A single dermal dose of this extract up to 32 g/kg body weight (bw) did not produce any visible sign of toxicity. Also, daily dermal application of the C. bauchiense extract gel formulation for 28 days did not show any negative effect, instead some biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT and AST), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides were significantly (p < 0.05) affected positively.Conclusion: These results indicate that the C. bauchiense ethyl acetate extract can be used safely for the treatment of some bacterial infections. © 2011 Mouokeu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Douanla P.D.,University of Yaounde I | Tabopda T.K.,University of Yaounde I | Tchinda A.T.,Institute of Medical Research and Medicinal Plant Studies IMPM | Cieckiewicz E.,University of Liege | And 6 more authors.
Phytochemistry | Year: 2015

During a study on the chemistry and biological activity of Antrocaryon klaineanum Pierre, six new sterols including 4,24(28)-ergostadiene-6α,7α-diol (1), 6α-methoxy-4,24(28)-ergostadiene-7α,20S-diol (2), 6α-methoxy-4,24(28)-ergostadien-7α-ol (3), 20S-hydroxy-24(28)-ergosten-3-one (4), 7α-hydroxy-4,24(28)-ergostadien-3-one (5), and 24(28)-ergostene-3β,6α-diol (6) were characterized by physical and spectroscopic means. The known steroids 7 and 8 were also isolated. The crude extract and the isolated compounds were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Compounds 2, 3, and 8 showed potent activity while that of the crude extract was moderate. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Tchinda V.H.M.,Institute of Medical Research and Medicinal Plant Studies IMPM | Tchinda V.H.M.,University of Yaounde I | Socpa A.,University of Yaounde I | Keundo A.A.,Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry | And 4 more authors.
Pan African Medical Journal | Year: 2012

Introduction: Insecticide treated net remains a tool of choice for malaria prevention in Cameroon. However, data suggests that its use by the population, especially vulnerable groups remains low. Moreover, there is a paucity of information about factors influencing its use. We sought out to identify factors associated with net use in Mfou health district, prior to distribution of long lasting insecticides treated nets (LLINs) in households.Methods: A two-stage cluster random sampling was conducted in 4 health areas with an average of 13 villages each. A total of 541 households were selected and heads interviewed using a structured household questionnaire. Data collected were entered into a database and multivariate logistic regression analyses of the association between net use and explanatory factors were performed using SPSS. Results: Net possession and use were respectively, 59.7 and 42.6%; thus, 2 out of 5 people who spent the previous night in households, slept under a net. Factors associated with net use included: net density≥0.5 (OR=8.88, 95% CI: 6.24-12.64), age≥5 years (OR=0.37, 95%CI: 0.28-0.47), secondary education (OR=1.41, 95% CI: 1.11-1.80) compared to primary/no education, parent status (OR=3.32, 95% CI: 2.31-4.76), house construction (OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.10-1.71) and environment characteristics (OR=1.46, 95% CI: 1.18-1.80). Conclusion: These data suggest that a universal coverage with one LLIN for two people should be achieved in households. Then, malaria health education should be conducted to re-enforce net use among school-aged children and adolescents, as well as older household members. Moreover, management of environment and improvement in houses construction are necessary. © Viviane Hélène Matong Tchinda et al. Source

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