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The cannabis and legal marijuana industry continues to be a rapidly growing and very lucrative opportunity for a variety of companies, but a recent focus on intellectual property development and innovative services have emerged as companies go all-out to serve the thriving consumer demand where legally approved marijuana operations have been approved. Companies in the race to enhance production and quality as well as providing new advanced services in the industry include: Sugarmade, Inc. (OTC: SGMD), Cannabis Science, Inc. (OTC: CBIS), MassRoots, Inc. (OTC: MSRT), mCig, Inc. (OTC: MCIG), United Cannabis Corporation (OTC: CNAB). Sugarmade, Inc. (OTCQB: SGMD), announces the completion of an agreement allowing the Company to introduce a new and revolutionary set of intelligent and active packaging systems for cannabis transport and storage. These products will allow cultivators and retailers to preserve THC levels, protect trichomes and save terpenes, while helping to mitigate pathogen levels, all of which are critical to the marketing and enjoyment of high-quality cannabis flowers. "We plan to lead the market in advanced transport and storage for the fast growing cannabis industry," commented Jimmy Chan, CEO. "Currently, cannabis flowers have a very short shelf life. The trichomes that protect the cannabinoids, terpenoids and flavonoids are extremely sensitive to handling, atmosphere gases, humidity and light. Current methods of transport and storage are very unfriendly to trichome preservation, resulting in millions of dollars in lost profits for cultivators and retailers and reduced enjoyment by consumers. Our aim is to lead the market in fixing these problems for the fast growing cannabis marketplace." Read this and more news for SGMD at http://marketnewsupdates.com/news/sgmd.html Through the use of patent protected technologies, Sugarmade will offer transport and storage containers that will actively create the ultimate protective environment within transport and storage containers, while also applying food safe oxidizers to mitigate pathogens to make cannabis safer. Sugarmade and its licensor partner, Cannabis Active Packaging, Inc., are currently in the applications development process and are actively developing prototypes for testing in the laboratory environment. While the food industry has used modified atmosphere packaging for many years, recent advancements have given way to active and intelligent packaging. Active packaging is a smart system that involves interaction between packaging components and the internal gas atmosphere within the package. The intellectual property on which Sugarmade will base its new products takes active packaging one step further by adding intelligence to the packaging, which will allow for active feedback to the consumer and tracking throughout the entire supply chain. In other recent performances and developments in the marijuana markets: Cannabis Science, Inc. (OTC: CBIS) News: Crown Baus Capital Corp. (CBCA) announces the Company acquires 100-acre investment participation in the Cannabis Science, Inc. (CBIS) Property and Drug Development Projects spread across California and Nevada. The agreement includes cultivation, laboratory, and manufacturing capabilities. CBIS will receive 10 million common shares of CBCA as payment in kind. Mr. Dabney is the President, CEO, and Co-Founder of both CBCA and CBIS. MassRoots, Inc. (OTCQB: MSRT) closed up at $1.01 on Friday trading over 2.3 Million shares by the market close. MassRoots, one of the leading technology platforms for the cannabis industry, announced on last Friday a general business update on the Company and legal cannabis marketplace. Read the full update at: http://finance.yahoo.com/news/massroots-provides-business-company-outlook-140000927.html mCig, Inc. (OTCQB: MCIG) closed up over 7% on last Friday trading over 2.7 Million shares by the market close. mCig Inc., a diversified company servicing the legal cannabis, hemp, and CBD markets, earlier this month came into a significant agreement with several MCIG's major shareholders to reduce its common stock by 60 million shares by converting those shares into 6 million Series A Preferred Stock with a minimum 2 year lock up agreement. United Cannabis Corporation (OTCQB: CNAB) closed even last Friday at $2.00 trading over 1.5 Million shares by the market close. United Cannabis recently announced that it, along with its Jamaica-based subsidiary, Cannabis Research & Development ("CRD"), had signed a Letter of Intent with the Caribbean Institute of Medical Research to collaborate on advancing clinical research on medical cannabis. DISCLAIMER:  MarketNewsUpdates.com (MNU) is a third party publisher and news dissemination service provider, which disseminates electronic information through multiple online media channels. MNU is NOT affiliated in any manner with any company mentioned herein. MNU and its affiliated companies are a news dissemination solutions provider and are NOT a registered broker/dealer/analyst/adviser, holds no investment licenses and may NOT sell, offer to sell or offer to buy any security. MNU's market updates, news alerts and corporate profiles are NOT a solicitation or recommendation to buy, sell or hold securities. 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Chow Z.,Monash University | Banerjee A.,Institute of Medical Research | Hickey M.J.,Monash University
Immunology and Cell Biology | Year: 2015

Regulatory T cells have essential roles in regulating immune responses and limiting inappropriate inflammation. Evidence now indicates that to achieve this function, regulatory T cells must be able to migrate to the most appropriate locations within both lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs. This function is achieved via the spatiotemporally controlled expression of adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors, varying according to the developmental stage of the regulatory T cell and the location and environment where they undergo activation. In this Review, we summarise information on the roles of adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors in mediating regulatory T-cell migration and function throughout the body under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. In addition, we review recent studies that have used in vivo imaging to examine the actions of regulatory T cells in vivo, in lymph nodes, in the microvasculature and in the interstitium of peripheral organs. These studies reveal that the capacity of regulatory T cells to undergo selective migration serves a critical role in their ability to suppress immune responses. As such, the cellular and molecular requirements of regulatory T-cell migration need to be completely understood to enable the most effective use of these cells in clinical settings. © 2015 Australasian Society for Immunology Inc. All rights reserved.

Gemma C.,Institute of Medical Research | Sookoian S.,Institute of Medical Research | Dieuzeide G.,CAIDEM | Garcia S.I.,Institute of Medical Research | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism | Year: 2010

Purpose: To explore whether DNA methylation of the mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) promoter is associated with insulin resistance in a sample of adolescents with features of metabolic syndrome. Methods: The data and blood samples were collected from 122 adolescents out of a cross-sectional study of 934 high-school students. The population was divided into two groups: noninsulin resistance (NIR) and insulin resistance (IR). After bisulfite treatment of genomic DNA from peripheral leukocytes, we used methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to assess DNA methylation of three putative methylation target sites (CpG) in the TFAM promoter. Results: The ratio of the promoter methylated DNA/unmethylated DNA was 0.012 ± 0.0009 (1.2% of alleles), and inversely correlated with the biochemical features of insulin resistance (plasma fasting insulin R: -0.26, p < 0.004 and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index R: -0.27, p < 0.002), and obesity (R: -0.27, p < 0.002). Multiple regression analysis showed that the log-transformed HOMA index correlated with the status of promoter methylation of TFAM, independently of body mass index (BMI) Z score (β: -0.33 ± 0.094, p = 0.00094). Finally, the TFAM promoter methylated DNA/unmethylated DNA ratio was found to be significantly associated with insulin resistance as dichotomous variable (NIR n = 45, 0.014 ± 0.002 and IR n = 77, 0.011 ± 0.001, respectively, p < 0.016). Conclusion: Our findings suggest a potential role of promoter TFAM methylation in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in adolescents. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Goh P.,Hospital Selayang | Omar M.A.,Institute of Health Management | Yusoff A.F.,Institute of Medical Research
Singapore Medical Journal | Year: 2010

Introduction: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the commonest complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), and is the leading cause of blindness among working adults. Modification of the associated risk factors as well as early detection and treatment of sight-threatening DR can prevent blindness. Clinical practice guidelines recommend annual eye screening for patients with DM. The proportion of patients in Malaysia who adhere to this recommendation was initially unknown. Methods: The Malaysian National Health and Morbidity Survey is a population-based survey conducted once every decade on the various aspects of health, behaviour and diseases. The DM questionnaire on eye screening was administered as face-to-face interviews with 2,373 patients with known DM who were aged 18 years and older. Results: In all, 55 percent of patients with known DM had never undergone an eye examination. Among patients who had undergone eye examinations, 32.8 percent had the last examination within the last one year, 49.8 percent within the last one to two years, and 17.4 percent more than two years ago. A signifcantly lower proportion of younger patients and patients who received treatment for DM from non-government facilities had previously undergone eye examinations. Conclusion: The prevalence of DM observed among Malaysians aged 30 and above is 14.9 percent; thus, there is a signifcant number of people with potential blinding DR. Adherence to eye screening guidelines and the prompt referral of sight-threatening DR are essential in order to reduce the incidence of blindness among patients with DM.

Afroze B.,Aga Khan University | Yunus Z.,Institute of Medical Research | Steinmann B.,University of Zürich | Santer R.,University of Hamburg
European Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2013

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP) deficiency is an autosomal-recessive disorder of gluconeogenesis resulting from mutations within the FBP1 gene. During periods of trivial illness, individuals with FBP deficiency may develop ketotic hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, lactic acidemia, and an increased anion gap. Although detection of urinary excretion of glycerol by urine organic acid analysis has been previously described, the presence of transient pseudo-hypertriglyceridemia in serum during metabolic decompensation has not been reported before. This study describes four consanguineous Pakistani families, in which four patients were diagnosed with FBP deficiency. All showed transient pseudo-hypertriglyceridemia during the acute phase of metabolic decompensation, which resolved in a metabolically stable phase. Mutations in the FBP1 gene have been described from various ethnicities, but there is very limited literature available for the Pakistani population. This study also describes one novel mutation in the FBP1 gene which seems to be prevalent in Pakistani-Indian patients. Conclusion: As a result of this study, transient pseudo-hypertriglyceridemia should be added to glyceroluria, ketotic hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and lactic acidosis as a useful biochemical marker of FBP deficiency.

Dixon C.M.,New Hill | Cedano E.R.,Clinica Canela | Mynderse L.A.,Mayo Medical School | Larson T.R.,Institute of Medical Research
Research and Reports in Urology | Year: 2015

Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the acute ablative characteristics of transurethral convective water vapor (steam) using the Rezūm® system in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia through histologic and radiographic studies. Methods: Seven patients were treated with transurethral intraprostatic injections of sterile steam under endoscopic visualization followed by previously scheduled adenectomies. The extirpated adenomas were grossly examined followed by whole mount sectioning and staining with triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride (TTC) to evaluate thermal ablation. Histology was performed after hematoxylin and eosin staining on one prostate. After review of results from the frst patient cohort, an additional 15 patients with clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia were treated followed by gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at one week. Results: In the first patient cohort, gross examination of TTC-stained tissue showed thermal ablation in the transition zone. In addition, there was a distinct interface between viable and necrotic prostatic parenchyma. Histopathologic examination revealed TTC staining-outlined necrotic versus viable tissue. Gadolinium-enhanced MRIs in the cohort of 15 patients demonstrated lesion defects in all patients at 1 week post-procedure. Coalesced lesions were noted with a mean (± standard deviation) lesion volume of 9.6±8.5 cm3. The largest lesion volume was 35.1 cm3. Ablation using vapor was rapid and remained confined to the transition zone, consistent with the thermodynamic principles of convective thermal energy transfer. Conclusion: Thermal ablation was observed in all specimens. The resulting coalescing ablative lesions, as seen on MRI, were confned to the transition zone. These studies confrm the ablative capabilities of vapor, validate the thermodynamic principles of convective heating, and allow for further clinical studies. © 2015 Dixon et al.

Mohamed Saini S.,University of Kuala Lumpur | Nik Jaafar N.R.,University of Kuala Lumpur | Sidi H.,University of Kuala Lumpur | Midin M.,University of Kuala Lumpur | And 2 more authors.
Comprehensive Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Objectives The risk variants have been shown to vary substantially across populations and a genetic study in a heterogeneous population might shed a new light in the disease mechanism. This preliminary study aims to determine the frequency of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia and its association with bipolar disorder. Methods This is a candidate gene association study of randomly selected forty five unrelated bipolar disorder probands and sixty six controls. Diagnosis was evaluated using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I). The control group consisted of healthy volunteers without personal psychiatric history and family history of mood disorder. Patients' whole blood was collected for genotyping. Results This study revealed that the frequency of the short variant of 5-HTTLPR in healthy control group was highest in Indians (42.9%) followed by Malays (23.5%) and was absent in Chinese. The association between the homozygous ss genotype of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism with bipolar disorder was not found in the pooled subjects (χ2 = 1.52, d.f. = 1, p = 0.218, OR = 4.67, 95% C.I. = 0.69-7.58) and after stratification into Malays (p = 0.315, OR = 2.03, 95% CI = 0.50-8.17), Indians (p = 0.310; OR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.21-0.92) and Chinese. Conclusion The differences in the frequency of the short allele of 5-HTTLPR across the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia were noteworthy. The present study showed no significant association between the homozygous short variant of the 5-HTTLPR and bipolar disorder in the pooled subject and after stratification into the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Gompel A.,University of Paris Descartes | Burger H.,Institute of Medical Research
Climacteric | Year: 2015

The incidence of ovarian cancer is tenfold lower than that of breast cancer. The goal of the recently published meta-analysis by Beral and colleagues, using 'individual participant datasets from 52 epidemiological studies', was to provide an updated assessment of the effect of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) on ovarian cancer risk. The relative risk generated from the cited prospective studies was significantly increased but the relative risk from the retrospective studies was not. This is quite unusual since retrospective studies usually display higher levels of relative risk. No further increase was observed with increasing duration. Moreover, a number of the studies could not be adjusted for important ovarian cancer risk factors. From the metaanalysis, it can be calculated that the absolute excess risk of 5 years of MHT for a 50-year-old UK woman is 1 in 10 000 per year, indicating a very low risk. We conclude that this meta-analysis mostly reflects the previously published data from the Million Women Study, from which the majority of this new publication is derived. © 2015 International Menopause Society.

Weinger J.G.,Yeshiva University | Davies P.,Yeshiva University | Davies P.,Institute of Medical Research | Acker C.M.,Yeshiva University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology | Year: 2012

The abundant axonal microtubule-associated protein tau regulates microtubule and actin dynamics, thereby contributing to normal neuronal function. We examined whether mice deficient in tau (Tau -/-) or with high levels of human tau differ from wild-type (WT) mice in their susceptibility to neuroaxonal injury in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis. After sensitization with MOG 35-55, there was no difference in clinical disease course between human tau and WT mice, but Tau -/- mice had more severe clinical disease and significantly more axonal damage in spinal cord white matter than those in WT mice. Axonal damage in gray matter correlated with clinical severity in individual mice. By immunoblot analysis, the early microtubule-associated protein-1b was increased 2-fold in the spinal cords of Tau -/- mice with chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis versus naive Tau -/- mice. This difference was not detected in comparable WT animals, which suggests that there was compensation for the loss of tau in the deficient mice. In addition, levels of the growth arrest-specific protein 7b, a tau-binding protein that is stabilized when bound to tau, were higher in WT than those in Tau -/-spinal cord samples. These data indicate that loss of tau exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and suggest that maintaining tau integrity might reduce the axonal damage that occurs in inflammatory neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis. © 2012 by the American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc.

Waugh O.C.,Australian National University | Byrne D.G.,Australian National University | Nicholas M.K.,Institute of Medical Research
Journal of Pain | Year: 2014

Although persistent pain occurs in a sociocultural context, the influence of personal devaluation and invalidation is often neglected. As such, the present study sought to consider whether individuals' experience, perception, or anticipation of negative social reactions to their pain may become internalized and affect the self. To examine this issue, 92 adults with chronic pain responded to a questionnaire exploring the presence of internalized stigma and its association with a range of psychological consequences. As predicted, a large percentage of people with chronic pain (38%) endorsed the experience of internalized stigma. The results showed that internalized stigma has a negative relationship with self-esteem and pain self-efficacy, after controlling for depression. Internalized stigma was also associated with cognitive functioning in relation to pain, in terms of a greater tendency to catastrophize about pain and a reduced sense of personal control over pain. Overall, this study presents a new finding regarding the application of internalized stigma to a chronic pain population. It offers a means of extending our understanding of chronic pain's psychosocial domain. Implications are discussed in terms of the potential to inform clinical treatment and resiliency into the future. Perspective This article presents a novel finding regarding the presence of internalized stigma among people living with chronic pain. Internalized stigma is strongly associated with indicators of patient outcome. It presents an area for future work with the aim to improve our understanding and treatment of people living with pain. © 2014 by the American Pain Society.

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