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Wolff V.,Hopitaux Universitaires Of Strasbourg Hus | Lauer V.,Hopitaux Universitaires Of Strasbourg Hus | Rouyer O.,EA 3072 | Sellal F.,Service de Neurologie | And 7 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2011

Background And Purpose- Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between cannabis use and ischemic stroke in a young adult population. Methods- Forty-eight consecutive young patients admitted for acute ischemic stroke participated in the study. First-line screening was performed, including blood tests, cardiovascular investigations, and urine analysis for cannabinoids. If no etiology was found, 3D rotational angiography and cerebrospinal fluid analysis were performed. A control was planned through neurovascular imaging within 3 to 6 months. Results- In this series, there was multifocal intracranial stenosis associated with cannabis use in 21% (n=10). Conclusions- Multifocal angiopathy associated with cannabis consumption could be an important cause of ischemic stroke in young people. © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.


Chatelin S.,University of Strasbourg | Vappou J.,University of Strasbourg | Roth S.,University of Strasbourg | Raul J.S.,University of Strasbourg | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials | Year: 2012

The characterization of brain tissue mechanical properties is of crucial importance in the development of realistic numerical models of the human head. While the mechanical behavior of the adult brain has been extensively investigated in several studies, there is a considerable paucity of data concerning the influence of age on mechanical properties of the brain. Therefore, the implementation of child and infant head models often involves restrictive assumptions like properties scaling from adult or animal data. The present study presents a step towards the investigation of the effects of age on viscoelastic properties of human brain tissue from a first set of dynamic oscillatory shear experiments. Tests were also performed on three different locations of brain (corona radiata, thalamus and brainstem) in order to investigate regional differences. Despite the limited number of child brain samples a significant increase in both storage and loss moduli occurring between the age of 5 months and the age of 22 months was found, confirmed by statistical Student's t-tests (p= 0.104, 0.038 and 0.054 for respectively corona radiata, thalamus and brain stem samples locations respectively). The adult brain appears to be 3-4 times stiffer than the young child one. Moreover, the brainstem was found to be approximately 2-3 times stiffer than both gray and white matter from corona radiata and thalamus. As a tentative conclusion, this study provides the first rheological data on the human brain at different ages and brain regions. This data could be implemented in numerical models of the human head, especially in models concerning pediatric population. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Kintz P.,X Pertise Consulting | Kintz P.,Institute Of Medecine Legale
Forensic Science International | Year: 2015

Hair specimen is necessary to complement blood and/or urine analyses as it permits differentiation of a single exposure from chronic use of a drug by segmentation of the hair for a stated growth period. Moreover, due to a frequent long delay between event and police declaration, hair can be the only solution for lack of corroborative evidence of a committed crime. With the exception of lower amount of biological material in children versus adults, there is no specific analytical problem when processing samples from children. The issue is the interpretation of the findings, with respect to the different pharmacological parameters. In some very young children, the interpretation can be complicated by potential in utero exposure.Twenty-four cases from daily practice have been reviewed. Children were less than 1 year old, hair was always longer than 4. cm and the corresponding mothers admitted having used drugs during pregnancy.Drugs involved include methadone, tramadol, diphenhydramine, diazepam, cannabis, heroin, amitriptyline and bromazepam. Analyses were achieved by hyphenated chromatographic validated procedures after hair decontamination and segmentation.The concentrations measured in the hair of children were lower than those observed in subjects using therapeutically (or illegally) these drugs. In that sense, the frequency of exposures appears as un-frequent (low level of exposure), with marked decrease in the more recent period. However, the parents denied any administration in all cases and there was no reason to suspect re-exposure after delivery and no clinical problem during the period between delivery and hair collection during regular visits to the physician was noticed. The pattern of drug distribution was similar in all these cases, low concentrations in the proximal segments and highest concentration in the distal segment (last segment). When considering the concentration in the distal segment as the 100% of the response (highest concentration), after analysis of 4 segments (irrespective of the length of the segment but longer than 1. cm), it was observed the following pattern: proximal segment, 5-35% of the response; segment 2, 15-50% of the response; segment 3, 25-60% of the response; and distal segment, 100% of the response.It is proposed to consider 100% in utero contribution to the final interpretation when the ratio concentration of the proximal segment to the concentration of the distal segment is lower than 0.5. This can be applied only when the child is under 1 year old and the hair shaft length is at least 4. cm (to achieve suitable segmentation). It is important, when using this cut-off to have at least 3 or 4 segments to be able to observe the variation in drug concentrations, whatever the length of each segment (>1. cm). © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


To further explore early Eurasian steppe migration, we determined the Y chromosome and mitochondrial haplo types of 26 ancient human specimens from the Krasnoyarsk area, dated between the middle of the second millennium BC and the fourth century A D. Our autosomal Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA analyses reveal that, whereas few specimens seem to be related matrilineally or patrilineally, nearly all the subjects belong to haplogroup R1a1 - M17, which is thought to mark the eastward migration of early Indo-Europeans. Our results also confirm that, during the Bronze and Iron Ages, southern Siberia was a region of overwhelming European settlement.


Razafindrazaka H.,University Paul Sabatier | Ricaut F.-X.,University Paul Sabatier | Cox M.P.,Massey University | Mormina M.,University of Cambridge | And 7 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2010

More than a decade of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) studies have given the Polynesian motif renowned status as a marker for tracing the late-Holocene expansion of Austronesian speaking populations. Despite considerable research on the Polynesian motif in Oceania, there has been little equivalent work on the western edge of its expansion-leaving major issues unresolved regarding the motif's evolutionary history. This has also led to considerable uncertainty regarding the settlement of Madagascar. In this study, we assess mtDNA variation in 266 individuals from three Malagasy ethnic groups: the Mikea, Vezo, and Merina. Complete mtDNA genome sequencing reveals a new variant of the Polynesian motif in Madagascar; two coding region mutations define a Malagasy-specific sub-branch. This newly defined Malagasy motif occurs at high frequency in all three ethnic groups (13-50%), and its phylogenetic position, geographic distribution, and estimated age all support a recent origin, but without conclusively identifying a specific source region. Nevertheless, the haplotype's limited diversity, similar to those of other mtDNA haplogroups found in our Malagasy groups, best supports a small number of initial settlers arriving to Madagascar through the same migratory process. Finally, the discovery of this lineage provides a set of new polymorphic positions to help localize the Austronesian ancestors of the Malagasy, as well as uncover the origin and evolution of the Polynesian motif itself. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Ludes B.,Institute Of Medecine Legale
Medecine des Maladies Metaboliques | Year: 2011

Postmortem diagnosis of hypoglycemia is difficult in forensic medicine due to the lack of characteristic morphological findings and to the rapid degradation of biological markers. The authors describe the analytes (glucose and lactate, glycated proteins and oral antidiabetics), their stability data and analytic procedures that should be used in toxicological laboratories to detect if possible a hypoglycemia after death. © 2011 - Elsevier Masson SAS - Tous droits réservés.


Daligand L.,Institute Of Medecine Legale
Ethique et Sante | Year: 2015

Women are particularly victims of spousal or domestic violence. This violence can be verbal, psychological, financial but also with physical injuries and sexual abuse, including rape and murder. They can lead victims to suicide or homicide. The violence of the so-called love relationship aims to destroy the woman's body, which is the mediator of desire and giving birth. The origin of the violence is to be found in the failure of the structure related to the male child of the subject. For women, there may be a predisposition to meet a violent spouse. The effects of violence are apparent trauma, psychiatry, gynecology and obstetrics, chronic condition. Chronic exposure to domestic violence leads to child witnesses/victims often many negative consequences for their development. © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Cannet C.,Institute Of Medecine Legale | Baraybar J.P.,Institute Of Medecine Legale | Kolopp M.,Institute Of Medecine Legale | Meyer P.,University of Monastir | Ludes B.,Institute Of Medecine Legale
International Journal of Legal Medicine | Year: 2011

Estimation of age at death from human bones in legal medicine or in anthropology and archaeology is hampered by controversial results from the various macroscopic and histological techniques. This study attempted an estimation of age at death by histomorphometric analysis, from the fourth left rib adjacent to the costochondral joint in 80 forensic cases. Use of the picrosirius dye provided a reliable staining of the decalcified paraffin-embedded ribs. The total bone cortical area, the major and minor diameter as well as the area of the Haversian canals, the osteon areas of intact and remodelled secondary osteons, the area of non-Haversian canals were evaluated by means of image analysis, and derived parameters were calculated on both the internal and external sides of the rib. Most of the variables exhibited consistency between three different observers. Noteworthy, morphometric measurements in the internal cortex of the rib showed less variability than in the external cortex. Finally, discriminant statistical analysis from the 80 cases in this study indicated that the osteon population density was virtually sufficient to significantly discriminate between three groups of age: 20-39 (adulthood), 40-59 (middle age) and a group superior to 60. A subsequent blind evaluation of ten new subjects satisfactorily classified seven subjects out of ten within the three age groups. These results make feasible a larger study aimed at characterization of the practical relationships between bone tissue histomorphometry in ribs and chronological age in forensic cases. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Souheil M.,Institute Of Medecine Legale | Audrey F.,Institute Of Medecine Legale | Anny G.,Institute Of Medecine Legale | Sebastien R.J.,Institute Of Medecine Legale | Bertrand L.,Institute Of Medecine Legale
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2011

High chairs are commonly used to feed children after 6months. Related injuries are oftentime minor and rarely leading to death. We describe a case of a 2-year-old female child who used to jump alone on her high chair and also had the habit to fasten the straps by herself. Her mother found her hanging by the waist straps. A thorough investigation showed that she climbed her high chair and fastened the waist straps but not the crotch one. The girl slid down into the seat, trapping her neck in the waist straps and thus resulting in hanging. Inhere, we concluded that the victim's death was caused by asphyxia, itself, caused by accidental hanging. The present case is of a special interest because of the rare similar cases reported. This case suggests that a correct restraint use and a close supervision would have prevented such a fatal issue. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.


Kintz P.,Institute Of Medecine Legale | Raul J.-S.,Institute Of Medecine Legale
Revue de Medecine Legale | Year: 2016

A 21-year-old girl went to the police station because she had the feeling of having been raped some 36 hours earlier. She indicated memory loss, several bruises and anal wounds. Gynecologic investigations did not confirm these allegations. Toxicological analyses found a recent exposure to both cannabis (blood THC at 0.4 ng/mL), ecstasy (5 and 22,376 ng/mL in blood and urine, respectively) and amphetamine (6 and 11,406 ng/mL in blood and urine, respectively). Ethanol tested negative in both blood and urine. Hair analysis documented that the donor was a repetitive user of these 3 drugs of abuse. The police officer wanted to know whether ecstasy can be used in drug-facilitated crimes and its potential effect on memory. A literature review demonstrated the low prevalence of ecstasy in drug-facilitated crime cases, but possible implication due to its entactogenic effects and its possible anterograde amnesia production. Therefore, even if ecstasy has no sedative properties, the compound appears to be a powerful drug in drug-facilitated sexual assaults. © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS.

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