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Strasbourg, France

To further explore early Eurasian steppe migration, we determined the Y chromosome and mitochondrial haplo types of 26 ancient human specimens from the Krasnoyarsk area, dated between the middle of the second millennium BC and the fourth century A D. Our autosomal Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA analyses reveal that, whereas few specimens seem to be related matrilineally or patrilineally, nearly all the subjects belong to haplogroup R1a1 - M17, which is thought to mark the eastward migration of early Indo-Europeans. Our results also confirm that, during the Bronze and Iron Ages, southern Siberia was a region of overwhelming European settlement.

Razafindrazaka H.,University Paul Sabatier | Ricaut F.-X.,University Paul Sabatier | Cox M.P.,Massey University | Mormina M.,University of Cambridge | And 7 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2010

More than a decade of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) studies have given the Polynesian motif renowned status as a marker for tracing the late-Holocene expansion of Austronesian speaking populations. Despite considerable research on the Polynesian motif in Oceania, there has been little equivalent work on the western edge of its expansion-leaving major issues unresolved regarding the motif's evolutionary history. This has also led to considerable uncertainty regarding the settlement of Madagascar. In this study, we assess mtDNA variation in 266 individuals from three Malagasy ethnic groups: the Mikea, Vezo, and Merina. Complete mtDNA genome sequencing reveals a new variant of the Polynesian motif in Madagascar; two coding region mutations define a Malagasy-specific sub-branch. This newly defined Malagasy motif occurs at high frequency in all three ethnic groups (13-50%), and its phylogenetic position, geographic distribution, and estimated age all support a recent origin, but without conclusively identifying a specific source region. Nevertheless, the haplotype's limited diversity, similar to those of other mtDNA haplogroups found in our Malagasy groups, best supports a small number of initial settlers arriving to Madagascar through the same migratory process. Finally, the discovery of this lineage provides a set of new polymorphic positions to help localize the Austronesian ancestors of the Malagasy, as well as uncover the origin and evolution of the Polynesian motif itself. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Daligand L.,Institute Of Medecine Legale
Ethique et Sante | Year: 2015

Women are particularly victims of spousal or domestic violence. This violence can be verbal, psychological, financial but also with physical injuries and sexual abuse, including rape and murder. They can lead victims to suicide or homicide. The violence of the so-called love relationship aims to destroy the woman's body, which is the mediator of desire and giving birth. The origin of the violence is to be found in the failure of the structure related to the male child of the subject. For women, there may be a predisposition to meet a violent spouse. The effects of violence are apparent trauma, psychiatry, gynecology and obstetrics, chronic condition. Chronic exposure to domestic violence leads to child witnesses/victims often many negative consequences for their development. © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Kintz P.,X Pertise Consulting | Kintz P.,Institute Of Medecine Legale
Forensic Science International | Year: 2015

Hair specimen is necessary to complement blood and/or urine analyses as it permits differentiation of a single exposure from chronic use of a drug by segmentation of the hair for a stated growth period. Moreover, due to a frequent long delay between event and police declaration, hair can be the only solution for lack of corroborative evidence of a committed crime. With the exception of lower amount of biological material in children versus adults, there is no specific analytical problem when processing samples from children. The issue is the interpretation of the findings, with respect to the different pharmacological parameters. In some very young children, the interpretation can be complicated by potential in utero exposure.Twenty-four cases from daily practice have been reviewed. Children were less than 1 year old, hair was always longer than 4. cm and the corresponding mothers admitted having used drugs during pregnancy.Drugs involved include methadone, tramadol, diphenhydramine, diazepam, cannabis, heroin, amitriptyline and bromazepam. Analyses were achieved by hyphenated chromatographic validated procedures after hair decontamination and segmentation.The concentrations measured in the hair of children were lower than those observed in subjects using therapeutically (or illegally) these drugs. In that sense, the frequency of exposures appears as un-frequent (low level of exposure), with marked decrease in the more recent period. However, the parents denied any administration in all cases and there was no reason to suspect re-exposure after delivery and no clinical problem during the period between delivery and hair collection during regular visits to the physician was noticed. The pattern of drug distribution was similar in all these cases, low concentrations in the proximal segments and highest concentration in the distal segment (last segment). When considering the concentration in the distal segment as the 100% of the response (highest concentration), after analysis of 4 segments (irrespective of the length of the segment but longer than 1. cm), it was observed the following pattern: proximal segment, 5-35% of the response; segment 2, 15-50% of the response; segment 3, 25-60% of the response; and distal segment, 100% of the response.It is proposed to consider 100% in utero contribution to the final interpretation when the ratio concentration of the proximal segment to the concentration of the distal segment is lower than 0.5. This can be applied only when the child is under 1 year old and the hair shaft length is at least 4. cm (to achieve suitable segmentation). It is important, when using this cut-off to have at least 3 or 4 segments to be able to observe the variation in drug concentrations, whatever the length of each segment (>1. cm). © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Wolff V.,Hopitaux Universitaires Of Strasbourg Hus | Lauer V.,Hopitaux Universitaires Of Strasbourg Hus | Rouyer O.,EA 3072 | Sellal F.,Service de Neurologie | And 7 more authors.
Stroke | Year: 2011

Background And Purpose- Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between cannabis use and ischemic stroke in a young adult population. Methods- Forty-eight consecutive young patients admitted for acute ischemic stroke participated in the study. First-line screening was performed, including blood tests, cardiovascular investigations, and urine analysis for cannabinoids. If no etiology was found, 3D rotational angiography and cerebrospinal fluid analysis were performed. A control was planned through neurovascular imaging within 3 to 6 months. Results- In this series, there was multifocal intracranial stenosis associated with cannabis use in 21% (n=10). Conclusions- Multifocal angiopathy associated with cannabis consumption could be an important cause of ischemic stroke in young people. © 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.

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