Institute Of Medecine Environnementale

Paris, France

Institute Of Medecine Environnementale

Paris, France
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Monfardini E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Monfardini E.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Monfardini E.,University of Lyon | Monfardini E.,Institute Of Medecine Environnementale | And 10 more authors.
Frontiers in Neuroscience | Year: 2012

Much theoretical attention is currently devoted to social learning. Yet, empirical studies formally comparing its effectiveness relative to individual learning are rare. Here, we focus on free choice, which is at the heart of individual reward-based learning, but absent in social learning. Choosing among two equally valued options is known to create a preference for the selected option in both humans and monkeys.We thus surmised that social learning should be more helpful when choice-induced preferences retard individual learning than when they optimize it.To test this prediction, the same task requiring to find which among two items concealed a reward was applied to rhesus macaques and humans. The initial trial was individual or social, rewarded or unrewarded. Learning was assessed on the second trial. Choice-induced preference strongly affected individual learning. Monkeys and humans performed much more poorly after an initial negative choice than after an initial positive choice. Comparison with social learning verified our prediction. For negative outcome, social learning surpassed or at least equaled individual learning in all subjects. For positive outcome, the predicted superiority of individual learning did occur in a majority of subjects (5/6 monkeys and 6/12 humans). A minority kept learning better socially though, perhaps due to a more dominant/aggressive attitude toward peers. Poor learning from errors due to over-valuation of personal choices is among the decision-making biases shared by humans and animals. The present study suggests that choice-immune social learning may help curbing this potentially harmful tendency. Learning from successes is an easier path. The present data suggest that whether one tends to walk it alone or with a peer's help might depend on the social dynamics within the actor/observer dyad. © 2012 Monfardini, Gaveau, Boussaoud, Hadj-Bouziane and Meunier.


Monfardini E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Monfardini E.,Institute Of Medecine Environnementale | Gazzola V.,University of Groningen | Gazzola V.,Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and science | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Learning what behaviour is appropriate in a specific context by observing the actions of others and their outcomes is a key constituent of human cognition, because it saves time and energy and reduces exposure to potentially dangerous situations. Observational learning of associative rules relies on the ability to map the actions of others onto our own, process outcomes, and combine these sources of information. Here, we combined newly developed experimental tasks and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural mechanisms that govern such observational learning. Results show that the neural systems involved in individual trial-and-error learning and in action observation and execution both participate in observational learning. In addition, we identified brain areas that specifically activate for others' incorrect outcomes during learning in the posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC), the anterior insula and the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). © 2013 Monfardini et al.


Fornette M.-P.,Institute Of Recherche Biomedicale Des Armees | Bardel M.-H.,Institute Of Medecine Environnementale | Lefrancois C.,Institute Of Medecine Environnementale | Lefrancois C.,Paris 8 University | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Aviation Psychology | Year: 2012

This study investigated the effects of cognitive-adaptation training on flight performance and stress management in a sample of pilot cadets who were undergoing a basic flying program (N = 21). The aim of the training was to enhance the participants' awareness of the cognitive processes that they used in a given situation, and to strengthen reflective processes. Cadets were assigned to a training group or to a control group. In-flight performance, stress-management mode, anxiety, and mood were measured. A significant pre- to posttraining improvement in in-flight performance was observed for the lowest ranked cadets in the training group. Anxiety and mood scores did not differ significantly between the training and control groups. However, trained cadets reported changing their stress-management mode. On the whole, these results indicate that cognitive-adaptation training of the type used in this study can enhance both cognitive and emotional adaptation skills. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Hadj-Bouziane F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Hadj-Bouziane F.,University of Lyon | Monfardini E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Monfardini E.,University of Lyon | And 11 more authors.
NeuroImage | Year: 2014

In monkey neuroimaging, head restraint is currently achieved via surgical implants. Eradicating such invasive head restraint from otherwise non-invasive monkey studies could represent a substantial progress in terms of Reduction and Refinement. Two non-invasive helmet-based methods are available but they are used exclusively by the pioneering research groups who designed them. In the absence of independent replication, they have had little impact in replacing the surgical implants. Here, we built a modified version of the helmet system proposed by Srihasam et al. (2010 NeuroImage, 51(1), 267-73) and tested it for resting state fMRI in awake monkeys. Extremely vulnerable to motion artifacts, resting state fMRI represents a decisive test for non-invasive head restraint systems. We compared two monkeys restrained with the helmet to one monkey with a surgically implanted head post using both a seed-based approach and an independent component analysis. Technically, the helmet system proved relatively easy to develop. Scientifically, although it allowed more extensive movements than the head post system, the helmet proved viable for resting state fMRI, in particular when combined with the independent component analysis that deals more effectively with movement-related noise than the seed-based approach. We also discuss the pros and cons of such device in light of the European Union new 2013 regulation on non-human primate research and its firm Reduction and Refinement requests. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Monfardini E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Monfardini E.,University of Lyon | Monfardini E.,Institute Of Medecine Environnementale | Reynaud A.J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 5 more authors.
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2016

Any animal, human or non-human, lives in a world where there are others like itself. Individuals' behaviors are thus inevitably influenced by others, and cognition is no exception. Long acknowledged in psychology, social modulations of cognition have been neglected in cognitive neuroscience. Yet, infusing this classic topic in psychology with brain science methodologies could yield valuable educational insights. In recent studies, we used a non-human primate model, the rhesus macaque, to identify social influences representing ancient biases rooted in evolution, and neuroimaging to shed light on underlying mechanisms. The behavioral and neural data garnered in humans and macaques are summarized, with a focus on two findings relevant to human education. First, peers' mistakes stand out as exceptional professors and seem to have devoted areas and neurons in the primates' brain. Second, peers' mere presence suffices to enhance performance in well-learned tasks, possibly by boosting activity in the brain network involved in the task at hand. These findings could be translated into concrete pedagogical interventions in the classroom. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Monfardini E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Monfardini E.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Monfardini E.,University of Lyon | Monfardini E.,Institute Of Medecine Environnementale | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Monkeys readily learn to discriminate between rewarded and unrewarded items or actions by observing their conspecifics. However, they do not systematically learn from humans. Understanding what makes human-to-monkey transmission of knowledge work or fail could help identify mediators and moderators of social learning that operate regardless of language or culture, and transcend inter-species differences. Do monkeys fail to learn when human models show a behavior too dissimilar from the animals' own, or when they show a faultless performance devoid of error? To address this question, six rhesus macaques trained to find which object within a pair concealed a food reward were successively tested with three models: a familiar conspecific, a 'stimulus-enhancing' human actively drawing the animal's attention to one object of the pair without actually performing the task, and a 'monkey-like' human performing the task in the same way as the monkey model did. Reward was manipulated to ensure that all models showed equal proportions of errors and successes. The 'monkey-like' human model improved the animals' subsequent object discrimination learning as much as a conspecific did, whereas the 'stimulus-enhancing' human model tended on the contrary to retard learning. Modeling errors rather than successes optimized learning from the monkey and 'monkey-like' models, while exacerbating the adverse effect of the 'stimulus-enhancing' model. These findings identify error modeling as a moderator of social learning in monkeys that amplifies the models' influence, whether beneficial or detrimental. By contrast, model-observer similarity in behavior emerged as a mediator of social learning, that is, a prerequisite for a model to work in the first place. The latter finding suggests that, as preverbal infants, macaques need to perceive the model as 'like-me' and that, once this condition is fulfilled, any agent can become an effective model. © 2014 Monfardini et al.


Monfardini E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Monfardini E.,University of Lyon | Monfardini E.,Institute Of Medecine Environnementale | Redoute J.,CERMEP Imagerie du Vivant | And 9 more authors.
Cerebral Cortex | Year: 2016

The sheer presence of another member of the same species affects performance, sometimes impeding it, sometimes enhancing it. For well-learned tasks, the effect is generally positive. This fundamental form of social influence, known as social facilitation, concerns human as well as nonhuman animals and affects many behaviors from food consumption to cognition. In psychology, this phenomenon has been known for over a century. Yet, its underlying mechanism (motivation or attention) remains debated, its relationship to stress unclear, and its neural substrates unknown. To address these issues, we investigated the behavioral, neuronal, and endocrinological markers of social facilitation in monkeys trained to touch images to obtain rewards. When another animal was present, performance was enhanced, but testing-induced stress (i.e., plasma cortisol elevation) was unchanged, as was metabolic activity in the brain motivation network. Rather, task-related activity in the (right) attention frontoparietal network encompassing the lateral prefrontal cortex, ventral premotor cortex, frontal eye field, and intraparietal sulcus was increased when another individual was present compared with when animals were tested alone. These results establish the very first link between the behavioral enhancement produced by the mere presence of a peer and an increase of metabolic activity in those brain structures underpinning attention. © 2015 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


Lefrancois C.,Institute Of Medecine Environnementale | Lefrancois C.,Paris 8 University | Van Dijk A.,Institute Of Medecine Environnementale | Van Dijk A.,Paris 8 University | And 5 more authors.
Journal de Therapie Comportementale et Cognitive | Year: 2011

Non-assertive behaviour is often observed in social phobia. Consequently, cognitive and behavioural therapies for social phobia consist largely of social skills training and assertive training, mostly using role-playing. The aim of this paper is to study the effects of a new role-playing intervention technique on self-confidence and social anxiety. The intervention consisted in playing two caricatured and opposite roles. The first one was a submissive role, and the second was a dominant role. Thirty-eight participants completed the Liebowitz social anxiety scale (LSAS ; Liebowitz, 1987) and the Rathus assertiveness schedule (RAS ; Rathus, 1973). Our results showed a lesser social anxiety level after a one-week period of daily role-playing. Assertiveness level however remained the same, probably due to psychometrical limitations of the tool. Hence, subsequent studies will analyse the long-term effects of our role-playing technique, with a larger population and using present and new measurement tools. © 2010 Association française de thérapie comportementale et cognitive.


Reynaud A.J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Reynaud A.J.,University of Lyon | Guedj C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Guedj C.,University of Lyon | And 7 more authors.
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Social psychology has long established that the mere presence of a conspecific, be it an active co-performer (coaction effect), or a passive spectator (audience effect) changes behavior in humans. Yet, the process mediating this fundamental social influence has so far eluded us. Brain research and its nonhuman primate animal model, the rhesus macaque, could shed new light on this long debated issue. For this approach to be fruitful, however, we need to improve our patchy knowledge about social presence influence in rhesus macaques. Here, seven adults (two dyads and one triad) performed a simple cognitive task consisting in touching images to obtain food treats, alone vs. in presence of a co-performer or a spectator. As in humans, audience sufficed to enhance performance to the same magnitude as coaction. Effect sizes were however four times larger than those typically reported in humans in similar tasks. Both findings are an encouragement to pursue brain and behavior research in the rhesus macaque to help solve the riddle of social facilitation mechanisms. © 2015 Reynaud, Guedj, Hadj-Bouziane, Meunier and Monfardini.


PubMed | Aix - Marseille University, Institute Of Medecine Environnementale, University of Lyon and CERMEP Imagerie du Vivant
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) | Year: 2016

The sheer presence of another member of the same species affects performance, sometimes impeding it, sometimes enhancing it. For well-learned tasks, the effect is generally positive. This fundamental form of social influence, known as social facilitation, concerns human as well as nonhuman animals and affects many behaviors from food consumption to cognition. In psychology, this phenomenon has been known for over a century. Yet, its underlying mechanism (motivation or attention) remains debated, its relationship to stress unclear, and its neural substrates unknown. To address these issues, we investigated the behavioral, neuronal, and endocrinological markers of social facilitation in monkeys trained to touch images to obtain rewards. When another animal was present, performance was enhanced, but testing-induced stress (i.e., plasma cortisol elevation) was unchanged, as was metabolic activity in the brain motivation network. Rather, task-related activity in the (right) attention frontoparietal network encompassing the lateral prefrontal cortex, ventral premotor cortex, frontal eye field, and intraparietal sulcus was increased when another individual was present compared with when animals were tested alone. These results establish the very first link between the behavioral enhancement produced by the mere presence of a peer and an increase of metabolic activity in those brain structures underpinning attention.

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