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Serres N.,Institute Of Mecanique Des Fluides Et Des Solides Imfs | Antoni F.,Institute of Electronics of Solids and Systems | Feugeas F.,Institute Of Mecanique Des Fluides Et Des Solides Imfs
Materiaux et Techniques

Analysis of mechanical, biological and physical behaviors on interfaces of medical biomaterials which evolve in the human oral system is particularly important. Indeed, various clinical influences, i.e. material aging and protection of dental elements, can be identified. Ni-Ti shape memory alloys are commonly used in the manufacture of dental instruments. Two endodontic systems have been studied in this paper. Although similar chemical compositions, their different surface conditions lead to various failure behaviors. Indeed, if one of the samples can be used several times, the other can break from the first use, without initial detection. This work aims to understand this difference, implementing a metallurgical study. A comparison of surface states, before and after dry etching and/or electropolishing treatments, was completed. The fatigue behavior, which was studied from the current literature, is related to the surface condition correlated with manufacture processes. © 2013 EDP Sciences. Source

Isel S.,Institute Of Mecanique Des Fluides Et Des Solides Imfs | Araud Q.,Institute Of Mecanique Des Fluides Et Des Solides Imfs | Vazquez J.,Institute Of Mecanique Des Fluides Et Des Solides Imfs | Dufresne M.,Institute Of Mecanique Des Fluides Et Des Solides Imfs
Techniques - Sciences - Methodes

This article deals with two methodologies to assess the discharge in sewer pipes using water-level measurements. These proposed methodologies are based on numerical models that take into account the hydraulic complexity of the measurement site, in particular the variability of the up- and downstream hydraulic conditions. These conditions often lead to a non-bijective relationship between the discharge and the water level. The first methodology is based on the Shallow water equations (SW); it takes the transient effect into account but requires quite a lot of material and human means. The second methodology is a simplification of the first one: considering low transient effects (which is often the case in sewer networks where the temporal variations are slow), the Gradually Varying Flow equations (GVF) are applicable. This method is more easily applicable on site. This method to assess the discharge using water level measurements goes through the building of a neural network which leads to the identification of a height-discharge relationship directly implementable in a sensor transmitter. Moreover, this approach enables a qualification of the hydraulic behaviour considering the available water depth measurements and an estimation of its related uncertainties. Once these methodologies have been introduced, this article aims at presenting their application on a real-life pipe located in the sewer network of Strasbourg (France), named "Steingiessen". The results have been compared with each other and with the available discharge measurements. Source

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