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Moura M.L.,Hospital das Clinicas | Boszczowski I.,Hospital das Clinicas | Mortari N.,Hospital das Clinicas | Lobo R.D.,Hospital das Clinicas | And 3 more authors.
Medicine (United States) | Year: 2015

To describe the nationwide impact of a restrictive law on over-the-counter sales of antimicrobial drugs, implemented in Brazil in November 2010. Approximately 75% of the population receives healthcare from the public health system and receives free-of-charge medication if prescribed. Total sales in private pharmacies as compared with other channels of sales of oral antibiotics were evaluated in this observational study before and after the law (2008-2012). Defined daily dose per 1000 inhabitants per day (DDD/TID) was used as standard unit. In private pharmacies the effect of the restrictive law was statistically significant (P < 0.001) with an estimated decrease in DDD/TID of 1.87 (s.e. = 0.18). In addition, the trend of DDD/TID before the restrictive law was greater than after the intervention (P < 0.001). Before November 2010, the slope for the trend line was estimated as 0.08 (s.e. = 0.01) whereas after the law, the estimated slope was 0.03 (s.e. = 0.01). As for the nonprivate channels, no difference in sales was observed (P = 0.643). The impact in the South and Southeast (more developed) regions was higher than in the North, Northeast, and Mid-West. The state capitals had a 19% decrease, compared with 0.8% increase in the rest of the states. Before the law, the sales of antimicrobial drugs were steadily increasing. From November 2010, with the restrictive law, there was an abrupt drop in sales followed by an increase albeit at a significantly lower rate. The impact was higher in regions with better socio-economic status. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Fernandez M.A.,Institute of Mathematics and Statistics | Lopes R.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Hirata N.S.T.,Institute of Mathematics and Statistics
Brazilian Symposium of Computer Graphic and Image Processing | Year: 2015

Image segmentation evaluation is usually performed by visual inspection, by comparing segmentation to a ground-truth, or by computing an objective function value for the segmented image. All these methods require user participation either for manual evaluation, or to define ground-truth, or to embed desired segmentation properties into the objective function. However, evaluating segmentation is a hard task if none of these three methods can be easily employed. Often, higher level tasks such as detecting or classifying objects can be performed much more easily than low level tasks such as delineating the contours of the objects. This fact can be advantageously used to evaluate algorithms for a low level task. We apply this approach to a case study on plankton classification. Segmentation methods are evaluated from the perspective of plankton classification accuracy. This approach not only helps choosing a good segmentation method but also helps detecting points where segmentation is failing. In addition, this more holistic form of segmentation evaluation better meets requirements of big data analysis. © 2015 IEEE. Source

Llobodanin L.G.,University of Sao Paulo | Barroso L.P.,Institute of Mathematics and Statistics | Castro I.A.,University of Sao Paulo
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2014

Typicality is the set of sensory characteristics that identify a distinctive type of wine. Thus, the aim of this research was to identify the sensory characteristics that contribute to define typicality of young South American red wines based on their varietal and origin, and to evaluate the effect of the vintage on this identification. To achieve this objective, visual appearance, odor, and taste of 138 wines from 2 vintages were submitted to a sensory evaluation using a descriptive analysis complemented with the frequency of citation method, performed by wine experts. The intensity of 17 odor and taste attributes was evaluated using a 5 points rating structured scale. The panel performance evaluation demonstrated its high level of expertise and reproducibility. The wines were separated into 3 clusters by multivariate analyses. Cluster 1 was primarily composed of Carménère, Malbec, and Syrah wines from Chile. Cluster 2 was predominantly composed of Tannat wines from Uruguay and Brazil, while Cluster 3 contained a higher proportion of Malbec and Merlot wines from Argentina and Brazil. Cabernet Sauvignon was equally distributed into all clusters. Wine experts were able to identify the wines according to their varietal and origin, suggesting that there is typicality in young South American red wines. The combination of descriptive analysis with the frequency of citation was useful in characterizing most of the wines, but the typicality perceived by the panelists was not achieved by multivariate analysis. Vintage did not alter the sensory characterization of the wines, and this result could be due the new viticulture or oenological practices used by the winemakers to compensate the environmental variation. Practical Application: Although typicality has been used during the purchasing of wine, there is no evidence that this concept is real for young South American red wines. This study contributed to identify sensory characteristics associated to typicality and showed that vintage did not alter the wines classification. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®. Source

Kleinman A.,University of Sao Paulo | Caetano S.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Brentani H.,University of Sao Paulo | Rocca C.C.D.A.,University of Sao Paulo | And 6 more authors.
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2015

Objective: The National Institute of Mental Health has initiated the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project. Instead of using disorder categories as the basis for grouping individuals, the RDoC suggests finding relevant dimensions that can cut across traditional disorders. Our aim was to use the RDoCs framework to study patterns of attention deficit based on results of Conners Continuous Performance Test (CPT II) in youths diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BD), attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), BD+ADHD and controls. Method: Eighteen healthy controls, 23 patients with ADHD, 10 with BD and 33 BD+ADHD aged 1217 years old were assessed. Pattern recognition was used to partition subjects into clusters based simultaneously on their performance in all CPT II variables. A Fishers linear discriminant analysis was used to build a classifier. Results: Using cluster analysis, the entire sample set was best clustered into two new groups, A and B, independently of the original diagnoses. ADHD and BD+ADHD were divided almost 50% in each subgroup, and there was an agglomeration of controls and BD in group B. Group A presented a greater impairment with higher means in all CPT II variables and lower Childrens Global Assessment Scale. We found a high cross-validated classification accuracy for groups A and B: 95.2%. Variability of response time was the strongest CPT II measure in the discriminative pattern between groups A and B. Conclusion: Our classificatory exercise supports the concept behind new approaches, such as the RDoC framework, for child and adolescent psychiatry. Our approach was able to define clinical subgroups that could be used in future pathophysiological and treatment studies. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists. Source

Madaloso B.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Correia G.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Goncalves T.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Nunes R.A.B.,University of Sao Paulo | And 4 more authors.
Experimental and Clinical Cardiology | Year: 2014

We evaluated left ventricular mass estimated by echocardiography relative to clinical and electrocardiographic variables in 539 asymptomatic individuals without overt heart disease, aged 41.7 ± 11.7 years, 236 (43.8%) men, 303 (56.2%) women. Left ventricular mass ranged between 67.12g and 253.91g (mean 131.61g ± 28.4g). Univariate regression analyses demonstrated that left ventricular mass increased with age (R2 3.3%, Pearson correlation 0.188), body weight (R2 32.2%, Pearson correlation 0.569), height (R2 18%, Pearson correlation 0.426), body mass index (R2 13%, Pearson correlation 0.363) and body surface area (R2 33.9%, Pearson correlation 0.585). Systolic blood pressure (R2 3.9%, Pearson correlation 0.202) and diastolic blood pressure (R2 3.1%, Pearson correlation 0.181), did not demonstrate a high relationship with left ventricular mass. Amplitude of R wave, lead aVL (R2 3.9%, Pearson correlation 0.202) frontal plane and amplitude of R wave, lead V5 (R2 1.8%, Pearson correlation 0.142) horizontal plane demonstrated the highest linear relations with left ventricular mass. In conclusion, in asymptomatic individuals without overt heart disease the relationship between left ventricular mass and demographic, clinical, laboratory and electrocardiographic variables demonstrated a mild correlation. Source

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