Institute of Maternal and Child Health IRCCS Burlo Garofolo

Trieste, Italy

Institute of Maternal and Child Health IRCCS Burlo Garofolo

Trieste, Italy
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Pasini A.,Nephrology and Dialysis Unit | Benetti E.,University of Padua | Conti G.,Pediatric Nephrology and Rheumatology Unit with Dialysis | Ghio L.,Pediatric Nephrology and Dialysis Unit | And 14 more authors.
Italian Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2017

This consensus document is aimed at providing an updated, multidisciplinary overview on the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric nephrotic syndrome (NS) at first presentation. It is the first consensus document of its kind to be produced by all the pediatric nephrology centres in Italy, in line with what is already present in other countries such as France, Germany and the USA. It is based on the current knowledge surrounding the symptomatic and steroid treatment of NS, with a view to providing the basis for a separate consensus document on the treatment of relapses. NS is one of the most common pediatric glomerular diseases, with an incidence of around 2-7 cases per 100000 children per year. Corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment, but the optimal therapeutic regimen for managing childhood idiopathic NS is still under debate. In Italy, shared treatment guidelines were lacking and, consequently, the choice of steroid regimen was based on the clinical expertise of each individual unit. On the basis of the 2015 Cochrane systematic review, KDIGO Guidelines and more recent data from the literature, this working group, with the contribution of all the pediatric nephrology centres in Italy and on the behalf of the Italian Society of Pediatric Nephrology, has produced a shared steroid protocol that will be useful for National Health System hospitals and pediatricians. Investigations at initial presentation and the principal causes of NS to be screened are suggested. In the early phase of the disease, symptomatic treatment is also important as many severe complications can occur which are either directly related to the pathophysiology of the underlying NS or to the steroid treatment itself. To date, very few studies have been published on the prophylaxis and treatment of these early complications, while recommendations are either lacking or conflicting. This consensus provides indications for the prevention, early recognition and treatment of these complications (management of edema and hypovolemia, therapy and prophylaxis of infections and thromboembolic events). Finally, recommendations about the clinical definition of steroid resistance and its initial diagnostic management, as well as indications for renal biopsy are provided. © 2017 The Author(s).


Copetti V.,University of Trieste | Pastore S.,University of Trieste | Pastore S.,Institute of Maternal and Child Health IRCCS Burlo Garofolo | De Pieri C.,Institute of Maternal and Child Health IRCCS Burlo Garofolo | And 6 more authors.
Archives of Disease in Childhood: Education and Practice Edition | Year: 2014

The causes of extremely elevated IgA, whether isolated or associated with an increase in other classes of immunoglobulin, are poorly defined in paediatrics. We reviewed the diagnostic significance of very high IgA levels (greater than 3 SD above the mean for age) in a cohort of patients referred to a tertiary care children's hospital. Hyper-IgA was found in 91 of 6364 subjects (1.4%) and in 68 cases was not associated with an increased IgG and/or IgM level. Most subjects with hyper-IgA (73.5%) had a severe immune defect, a chronic rheumatic disease or inflammatory bowel disease, while these conditions were very rare in a control group with normal IgA values (8%). Although our results may in part reflect the experience of a tertiary care centre, we suggest that hyper-IgA in children should always arouse suspicion of a serious disease.


Valencic E.,Institute of Maternal and Child Health IRCCS Burlo Garofolo | Loganes C.,Institute of Maternal and Child Health IRCCS Burlo Garofolo | Cesana S.,University of Milan Bicocca | Cesana S.,San Gerardo Hospital | And 6 more authors.
Stem Cell Research and Therapy | Year: 2014

Introduction. Despite having a proven immunosuppressive potential in vitro, human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are reported to display variable efficacy in vivo and, in fact, their proven benefit in the clinical practice is still limited and controversial. Methods. The interplay between clinical grade MSCs and pre-activated donor lymphocytes or selected lymphocyte subsets was studied in vitro. The kinetics of MSC growth and viability was evaluated by adhesion-dependent changes of culture plate impedance and biochemically by a colorimetric assay. Activation of natural killer (NK) cells was assessed as well, using a flow cytometry assay. Results: A strong inhibition of MSC growth was rapidly induced by the addition of pre-activated lymphocytes but not of resting lymphocytes. Inhibition seems not to be attributable to a single cell population, as similar results can be obtained by depleting NK cells or by using either selected CD4§ssup§+§esup§ or CD8§ssup§ +§esup§ lymphocytes. In addition, conditioned medium (CM) from activated lymphocytes was able to inhibit MSC growth in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, licensing with IFN-γ partially protected MSCs from pre-activated lymphocytes but not from their CM. These results suggest an inhibitory role of lymphocyte-activation-derived substances. However, the identification of a single molecule responsible for MSC inhibition remained elusive, even if preliminary experiments showed that ATP and, to a lesser extent, TNF- might play a role. Conclusions: These results suggest that survival of MSCs can be affected by soluble mediators released by activated lymphocytes. Thus it can be hypothesized that MSC immunosuppressive action in vivo could be impaired by ongoing immune activation through the release of inflammatory mediators. © 2014 Valencic et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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