Romano S.,CNR Marine Science Institute |
Piazza R.,University of Venice |
Piazza R.,CNR Institute for the Dynamics of Environmental Processes |
Mugnai C.,CNR Marine Science Institute |
And 9 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2013
Concentration and distribution of PCBs, PCB 11, and PBDEs in both surficial sediment and soil samples, taken from a zone subject to recent accelerated development, were investigated to assess the environmental quality and understand both natural and anthropogenic processes that influence contaminant behaviors. Values of PCB and PBDE are in the lower range of those reported in literature, typical of low impacted coastal zones. This could be due to efficient processes of resuspension and removal. Contaminants in the lagoon showed higher concentrations in sediments from sites close to the city and the outfalls of the industrial area, while soils showed maximum values in the northern samples. In addition, congener patterns and statistical analyses suggest the presence of effective degradation processes, especially for PBDEs, with the exception of the most concentrated samples that may indicate a direct input. PCB 11 is a significant component (up to 18%) in most lagoon sediments. Its presence is strongly associated with fine particles, thus the distribution seems to be driven mainly by the system hydrodynamic and does not trace the sources. Due to evaporation, only flooded agricultural soils show a similar relative abundance of this congener. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Giuliani S.,CNR Marine Science Institute |
Piazza R.,University of Venice |
Piazza R.,CNR Institute for the Dynamics of Environmental Processes |
Bellucci L.G.,CNR Marine Science Institute |
And 7 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2011
PCBs were analysed in surficial sediments and selected sediment cores collected between 2002 and 2008 in Central Vietnam coastal lagoons. The aim was to determine contamination levels and trends, and to evaluate the effects of anthropogenic pressures and natural events. Samples were mostly fine-grained with low total PCB concentrations (0.367-44.7μgkg-1). Atmospheric transport and post depositional processes modify to some degree the fingerprint of PCB inputs to the environment favouring the predominance of 3, 4 and 5 chlorinated congeners. The similarity of congener distributions in contemporary surficial samples also suggests the presence of a unique source over the entire study area, probably connected to mobilisation and long range transports from land-based stocks. The removal of consistent sediment layers is hypothesised based on repeated samplings of the same area. Natural meteorological events (such as typhoons) are suspected to be responsible for these sediment losses. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Arai T.,University of Malaysia, Terengganu |
Chino N.,University of Tokyo |
Le D.Q.,Institute of Marine Environment and Resources
Aquatic Ecology | Year: 2013
The patterns of use of marine and freshwater habitats by the tropical anguillid eels Anguilla marmorata and A. bicolor pacifica were examined by analysing the otolith strontium (Sr) and calcium (Ca) concentrations of yellow (immature) and silver (mature) stage eels collected in Vietnamese waters. In A. marmorata, the change in the Sr:Ca ratios outside the high Sr:Ca core was generally divided into three patterns: (1) typical catadromous life history pattern; (2) constant residence in brackish water; and (3) habitat shifting between sea and brackish waters with no freshwater life. In A. bicolor pacifica, no eels had a general life history as freshwater residents. The eels were also divided into three patterns: (1) constant residence in sea water; (2) constantly living in brackish water; and (3) habitat shifting from brackish to sea water with no freshwater residence. The mean Sr:Ca ratio value after recruitment to coastal waters ranged from 1. 73 to 5. 67 × 10-3 (mean 3. 2 × 10-3) in A. marmorata and from 2. 53 to 6. 32 × 10-3 (mean 4. 3 × 10-3) in A. bicolor pacifica. The wide range of otolith Sr:Ca ratios in both species indicated that the habitat use of these tropical eels was facultative among fresh, brackish, and marine waters during their growth phases after recruitment to coastal areas. Tropical eel species may have the same behavioural plasticity as temperate anguillid species regarding whether to enter freshwater or to remain in estuarine and marine environments. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Bettarel Y.,IRD Montpellier |
Bouvier T.,IRD Montpellier |
Nguyen H.K.,Institute of Oceanography of Nha Trang |
Thu P.T.,Institute of Marine Environment and Resources
Environmental microbiology | Year: 2015
A recent hypothesis considers that many coral pathologies are the result of a sudden structural alteration of the epibiotic bacterial communities in response to environmental disturbances. However, the ecological mechanisms that lead to shifts in their composition are still unclear. In the ocean, viruses represent a major bactericidal agent but little is known on their occurrence within the coral holobiont. Recent reports have revealed that viruses are abundant and diversified within the coral mucus and therefore could be decisive for coral health. However, their mode of action is still unknown, and there is now an urgent need to shed light on the nature of the relationships they might have with the other prokaryotic and eukaryotic members of the holobiont. In this opinion letter, we are putting forward the hypothesis that coral-associated viruses (mostly bacterial and algal viruses), depending on the environmental conditions might either reinforce coral stability or conversely fasten their decline. We propose that these processes are presumably based on an environmentally driven shift in infection strategies allowing viruses to regulate, circumstantially, both coral symbionts (bacteria or Symbiodinium) and surrounding pathogens. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Phuong T.H.,Hanoi University of Science |
Cu N.H.,Institute of Marine Environment and Resources |
Thanh T.D.,Institute of Marine Environment and Resources |
Van Dong B.,Hanoi University of Science
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2013
Geological wonders have been generally known as natural wonderful products. Resulted from geological processes, geological wonders are diverse in size that have geoheritage values that should be protected from damaging of substance, form and natural development. In a large scale, geological wonders can be geoheritage areas, containing several geodiversity elements that are geologically important or in a smaller scale, they can be geosites of heritage values (or geoheritage sites). In the delimitation of areas, having geoheritage values and the establishment of geoparks, the first thing is to recognise them as geosites and geoheritage areas that indicate great geological values. Besides the Ha Long bay, the world natural heritage with its outstanding aesthetic and geological values, the Cat Ba islands are typical and grandeur karst landscapes formed in tropical condition. Based on the geodiversity elements with their own geoheritage values on aesthetics, uniqueness and grandeur in the Cat Ba islands, the authors have recognised three geoheritage areas: the south cape of the Cat Ba embayment, Tung Gau (shelter), and the Lan Ha bay. Sites where Brachiopods, Crinoids and Tetracorals are exposed on the way through the island are considered as palaeontological geosites. The folds of limestone layers in the northern part of Cat Co 3 beach, with typical turbidite structures in carbonate formations are considered as a lithological geosite. The Devonian-Carboniferous boundary near the Cat Co 3 beach is regarded as a stratigraphical geosite while Que Kem and Turtle islands, etc. are considered as geomorphological geosites. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
PubMed | Institute of Marine Environment and Resources, IRD Montpellier and Institute of Oceanography of Nha Trang
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental microbiology | Year: 2015
A recent hypothesis considers that many coral pathologies are the result of a sudden structural alteration of the epibiotic bacterial communities in response to environmental disturbances. However, the ecological mechanisms that lead to shifts in their composition are still unclear. In the ocean, viruses represent a major bactericidal agent but little is known on their occurrence within the coral holobiont. Recent reports have revealed that viruses are abundant and diversified within the coral mucus and therefore could be decisive for coral health. However, their mode of action is still unknown, and there is now an urgent need to shed light on the nature of the relationships they might have with the other prokaryotic and eukaryotic members of the holobiont. In this opinion letter, we are putting forward the hypothesis that coral-associated viruses (mostly bacterial and algal viruses), depending on the environmental conditions might either reinforce coral stability or conversely fasten their decline. We propose that these processes are presumably based on an environmentally driven shift in infection strategies allowing viruses to regulate, circumstantially, both coral symbionts (bacteria or Symbiodinium) and surrounding pathogens.
Amano T.,Kyoto University |
Yoshinaga I.,Kyoto University |
Yamagishi T.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology |
van Thuoc C.,Institute of Marine Environment and Resources |
And 6 more authors.
Microbes and Environments | Year: 2011
Mangrove forests are common in subtropical regions, and have received considerable attention as vegetative buffers against anthropogenic N-loading. In this study, we investigated anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) as one of potentially important microbial N-removing pathways in mangrove and shrimp pond sediment in Haiphong, Vietnam. Measurements with 15N-labeled compounds demonstrated the occurrence of anammox in sediment of mangrove forest and a water channel connecting shrimp ponds to the sea in both 2005 and 2007, and of a semi-intensive shrimp pond in 2005. The rate of potential anammox activity reached to 0.7 nmol-N2 cm-3 h-1, although the contribution of anammox was less significant than denitrification. Anammox-type 16S rRNA gene fragments phylogenetically related to 'Scalindua' species were predominantly recovered from mangrove forest and water channel sediment in a PCR-clone library analysis targeting anammox bacteria. 'Kuenenia'-like gene fragments were also recovered from shrimp pond sediment as the major component. We demonstrated the occurrence of potential anammox activity, and suggested the possibility that diverse species of uncultured anammox bacteria contribute to the nitrogen cycle in subtropical mangrove-aquaculture ecosystems. Furthermore, this study provides new insight into the biogeography of anammox bacteria: 'Scalindua' and 'Kuenenia'-like species coexisted in the blackish sediment as in some temperate estuarine sediment.
Le D.Q.,University of Tokyo |
Nguyen D.C.,Institute of Marine Environment and Resources |
Harino H.,Kobe College |
Kakutani N.,Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences |
And 2 more authors.
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2010
This study investigated trace metals in water, sediment, and various organs of the mature eel Anguilla marmorata in the Ba River, Vietnam. The metal concentrations in water and sediment did not exceed the Vietnam water criteria and sediment background concentration, except for Mn and Pb in sediment. The results of metal analysis in eel specimens indicated that the liver and kidney were the dominant organs for almost all trace metals, whereas muscle tended to accumulate high levels of Hg and approximately 87.4-100% of Hg was methylmercury. A strong positive correlation between mercury levels in muscle and age were found, but there was no correlation between mercury and body size. Interestingly, a high concentration of Zn was found in the gonad and liver; this indicated that high levels of Zn in the liver might play a physiologically important role in the eel's biological mechanisms during gonadal maturation. Though almost none of the metal concentrations in the muscle exceeded the reference doses of the U.S. EPA, approximately 80% of eels from the river contained mercury exceeding the recommended levels (0.30 μg/g) of the U.S. EPA and might present a risk for human consumption. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Faxneld S.,University of Stockholm |
Jorgensen T.L.,University of Stockholm |
Nguyen N.D.,Institute of Marine Environment and Resources |
Nystrom M.,University of Stockholm |
And 2 more authors.
Marine Environmental Research | Year: 2011
Effects of elevated seawater temperature show high spatial heterogeneity and variation within and among coral species. The objective of this study was to investigate how two coral species, Porites lutea and Galaxea fascicularis, from two high latitude reefs differently exposed to chronic disturbance, respond to elevated seawater temperatures. Corals were collected from reefs nearshore (i.e. subjected to high sediment load, higher chlorophyll α concentrations, turbidity etc.) and offshore (i.e. less exposed). The corals were exposed in the lab to gradually increasing temperatures (25.5-33.5 °C) for 72 h after which they were allowed to recover to ambient temperature (25.5 °C) for 24 h. Production and respiration were measured after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. The results show that P. lutea from nearshore reefs suffered an initial decrease in gross primary production/respiration (GP/R) ratio after 24 h, after only a moderate temperature increase (+2 °C, from 25.5 to 27.5 °C), while there was no difference in GP/R ratio between heat-exposed and controls the other days, indicating that the chronic disturbance in the nearshore reef had no effect on their thermotolerance. Furthermore, P. lutea from the offshore reef showed a decrease in GP/R ratio both after 24 h and 72 h (33.5 °C) of exposure.In comparison, G. fascicularis showed a decrease in GP/R ratio after 48 h, 72 h and 96 h of exposure for the nearshore corals. Also, after 72 h these corals had withdrawn their polyps. There were no differences between heat-treated and controls for the offshore G. fascicularis. This implies that the chronically disturbed G. fascicularis had lower thermotolerance when exposed to a temperature increase.This study, hence, shows that the response of corals to elevated seawater temperature varies with species and environmental background history. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Van Q.N.,Institute of Marine Environment and Resources |
Duc T.T.,Institute of Marine Environment and Resources |
Van H.D.,Institute of Marine Environment and Resources
Journal of Ecology and Field Biology | Year: 2010
The Cat Ba Islands in Hai Phong City, northern Vietnam, consist of a large limestone island with a maximum height of 322 m above sea level and 366 small limestone islets with a total area of about 180 km2. The islands are relicts of karst limestone mountains that became submerged during the Holocene transgression 7000 - 8000 year ago. The combination of the longtime karst process and recent marine processes in the monsoonal tropical zone has created a very diversity landscape on the Cat Ba Islands that can be divided into 3 habitat types with 16 forms. The first habitat type is the karst mountains and hills, including karst mountains and hills, karst valleys and dolines, karst lakes, karst caves, and old marine terraces. The second habitat type is the limestone island coast, including beaches, mangrove marshes, tidal flats, rocky coasts, marine notch caves, marine karst lakes, and bights. The third habitat type is karst plains submerged by the sea, including karst cones (fengcong) and towers (fengling), bedrock exposed on the seabed, sandy mud seabed, and submerged channels. Like the landscape, the biodiversity is also high in ecosystems composed of scrub cover - bare hills, rainy tropical forests, paddy fields and gardens, swamps, caves, beaches, mangrove forests, tidal flats, rocky coasts, marine krast lakes, coral reefs, hard bottoms, seagrass beds and soft bottoms. The ecosystems on the Cat Ba Islands that support very high species biodiversity include tropical evergreen rainforests, soft bottoms; coral reefs, mangrove forests, and marine karst lakes. A total of 2,380 species have been recorded in the Cat Ba Islands, included 741 species of terrestrial plants; 282 species of terrestrial animals; 30 species of mangrove plants; 287 species of phytoplankton; 79 species of seaweed; 79 species of zooplankton; 196 species of marine fishes; 154 species of corals; and 538 species of zoobenthos. Many of these species are listed in the Red Book of Vietnam as endangered species, included the white-headed or Cat Ba langur (Trachypithecus poliocephalus), a famous endemic species. Human activities have resulted in significantly changes to the landscape end ecosytems of the Cat Ba islands; however, many natural aspects of the islandsd have been preserved. For this reason, the Cat Ba Islands were recognized as a Biological Reserved Area by UNESCO in 2004.