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Pant D.,Institute of Management Sciences
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2012

Small hospitals are the grassroots for the big hospital structures, so proper waste management practices require to be initiated from there. Small hospitals contribute a lot in the health care facilities, but due to their poor waste management practices, they pose serious biomedical waste pollution. A survey was conducted with 13 focus questions collected from the 100 hospital present in Dehradun. Greater value of per day per bed waste was found among the small hospitals (178 g compared with 114 g in big hospitals), indicating unskilled waste management practices. Small hospitals do not follow the proper way for taking care of segregation of waste generated in the hospital, and most biomedical wastes were collected without segregation into infectious and noninfectious categories. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.

Manvi S.S.,REVA institute of Technology and Management | Krishna Shyam G.,Institute of Management Sciences
Journal of Network and Computer Applications | Year: 2014

The cloud phenomenon is quickly becoming an important service in Internet computing. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) in cloud computing is one of the most significant and fastest growing field. In this service model, cloud providers offer resources to users/machines that include computers as virtual machines, raw (block) storage, firewalls, load balancers, and network devices. One of the most pressing issues in cloud computing for IaaS is the resource management. Resource management problems include allocation, provisioning, requirement mapping, adaptation, discovery, brokering, estimation, and modeling. Resource management for IaaS in cloud computing offers following benefits: scalability, quality of service, optimal utility, reduced overheads, improved throughput, reduced latency, specialized environment, cost effectiveness and simplified interface. This paper focuses on some of the important resource management techniques such as resource provisioning, resource allocation, resource mapping and resource adaptation. It brings out an exhaustive survey of such techniques for IaaS in cloud computing, and also put forth the open challenges for further research. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Sharma A.,Anand Agricultural University | Jana A.H.,Anand Agricultural University | Chavan R.S.,Institute of Management Sciences
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety | Year: 2012

Newer variants of milk powders and milk-based powders are being produced are looking for prospective end users. Powders possess physical and functional properties that are of significance in its usage notably powder structure, particle size distribution, powder density, bulk density, particle density, occluded air, interstitial air, flowability, rehydration (wettability, sinkability, dispersibility, solubility), hygroscopicity, heat stability, emulsifying ability, water activity, stickiness, caking, and others. Some of the functional properties of significance to milk powders and milk-based powders are discussed in this review. Applications with regard to specific milk powders for reconstituted cheese making, coffee creamers, and those suited for milk chocolate and for the baking industry are described. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®.

Sarma H.,Institute of Management Sciences
Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2011

Heavy metals (HMs) are natural components of the Earth's crust and are usually present in all environmental matrices. However, the concentration of several HMs has increased several fold in some ecosystems as a result of anthropogenic activities. Heavy environmental metal contamination has continued to gain global attention, mainly because of the toxicological risks posed by such metals to human health (Ayodeji and Olorunsola 2011). Although metallic elements are often essential for living organisms, they become toxic when present at high concentrations (Elekes et al. 2010). The rapid increase in human population, coupled with haphazard industrialization and technological advancement, has caused many serious environmental problems around the world; among the causes of such problems is the production and release of toxic metals. In the past few decades, the concentration of heavy metals in soil and surface waters has increased (Nriagu and Pacyna 1988; Larison et al. 2000) and now constitutes a potential threat to terrestrial and aquatic biota (Ives and Cardinale 2004; Nasim and Dhir 2010) and to humans by entering the food chain (Hsu et al. 2006; Meena et al. 2008). Because of the widespread presence of heavy metals in the environment, their residues also reach and are assimilated into medicinal plants. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

This study attempts to evaluate the Phytotoxkit™ as a tool for measuring the toxicity of municipal sewage sludges using 10 common plants: mustard, turnip, cress, red clover, cucumber, tomato, radish, sorrel, and spinach. The results were used to determine a germination index (GI) and a median effective concentration (EC) value for each plant. The trace metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminant content and the physical-chemical properties were examined. Most sewage sludges were characterized by an unfavorable electrical conductivity value of about 5.2 mS/cm2-1. The most abundant trace metals were zinc (Zn) at 871-1680 mg kg2-1, manganese (Mn) at 245-661 mg kg2-1, and copper (Cu) at 88.2-161.0 mg kg2-1. The lowest values were determined for cobalt (Co) at 2.9-3.8 mg kg2-1 and cadmium (Cd) at 0.7-3.7 mg kg2-1. The PAH sum was based on 10 individual compounds (USE EPA), and the PAH content ranged from 4.76 to 27.95 mg kg2-1, most of the sewage sludges showing a predomination by carcinogenic PAHs. The GI values, based on seed germination and root growth inhibition bioassays, showed increasing plant sensitivity to the tested sewage sludges in the following order: cress>turnip> mustard>sorrel>tomato>sorgo>red clover>radish>cucumber>spinach. The EC50 sewage sludge values lay in the range 31-404 g/kg of soil, and significant relationships were found for most of the plants between EC50 and the magnesium content (Mg21+: α 5 0.888-0.924, P 5 0.05), calcium content (Ca21+: α 5 0.813-0.911, P ≤ 0.05), and pH (α 5 20.913-0.948, P = 0.05). In the case of sewage sludge pollutants, significant relationships were found for trace metals such as: strontium (Sr: α 5 0.851-0.948, P ≤ 0.05), chromium (Cr: α 5 0.858, P ≤ 0.05), and nickel (Ni: α 5 0.955, P = 0.05), as well as pyrene (PAHs). © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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