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Balaguer F.,Institute Of Malalties Digestives I Metaboliques
Current Colorectal Cancer Reports | Year: 2011

Serrated polyps of the colorectum are formed by a spectrum of lesions that share a unique histological feature- the presence of sawtooth-shaped crypts. In the last decade, significant advances have been made on deciphering the molecular differences between these morphologically similar lesions, which has paved path for our current understanding for their neoplastic potential. In particular, the sessile serrated adenoma has become to be recognized as the precursor lesion for the group of sporadic colorectal cancers with high levels of microsatellite instability. These recent findings have challenged the long-held fundamental paradigm that all colon cancers arise via the classic adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Although it is welcome news that we now better understand the molecular pathogenesis of some proportion of sporadic cancers, nonetheless serrated polyps present with a major challenge for the early detection and management of colorectal cancer, which is no longer considered to be a homogenous entity. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Navarro S.,Institute Of Malalties Digestives I Metaboliques
Gastroenterologia y Hepatologia | Year: 2016

The eponymous are used in Medicine with the end to refer a sign, a syndrome, a disease, a technic, etc. It is a recognition of the medical community at the work of some outstanding medical practitioners which have described some aspects of the clinical practice. Forty-six eponymous related with Pancreatology have been joined in this paper. By this mean I try to pay tribute to personages which, with their engine and ability of observation, developed techniques of treatment or exploration or identified signs or diseases. They have permitted to advance in the different aspects of the knowledge of the pancreas. All are part of the history of Medicine. © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEEH y AEG.

Due to its retroperitoneal location, the pancreas has historically been a mysterious organ that is difficult to examine and which complicates treatment. The discovery of anesthesia and asepsis in the mid-19th century allowed laparotomic diagnosis, which was previously only possible at autopsy. The expectations of surgery were improved by the detection of blood groups, vitamin K synthesis, and the development of intensive care units. In addition, high levels of presurgical diagnosis and an unquestionable improvement of its results were enabled by advances in laboratory methods (serum quantification of amylase and lipase, tumoral markers, genetics, and techniques for measuring exocrine pancreatic function), imaging and endoscopic modalities, and fine tuning of surgical techniques. In this article, we review the history of the main milestones that have allowed progress in all these aspects. © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG.

Because of its retrogastric location and appearance, which is similar to mesenteric fat, for centuries the pancreas has been a mysterious, hidden organ that has received little attention. However, its importance was intuited and described by Herophilus, Ruphos of Ephesus and Galen. This gland began to appearin distinct medical treatises from the 16th century. There are two important scientists in the history of the pancreas. The fist, Johann Georg Wirsung, described the main pancreatic duct in 1642, a date considered by many to be the start of Pancreatology. The second, Claude Bernard, described pancreatic exocrine function between 1849 and 1856 and is considered the father of pancreatic physiology. Besides these two outstanding figures, there is a constellation of personalities who contributed to improving knowledge of this enigmatic gland with the results of their studies. The aim of this article is to call attention to some of the most notable findings that have enhanced knowledge of this gland over the years. © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG.

Navarro S.,Institute Of Malalties Digestives I Metaboliques
Gastroenterologia y Hepatologia | Year: 2016

Cystic fibrosis is the most common life-shortening recessively inherited disorder in the Caucasian population. The genetic mutation that most frequently provokes cystic fibrosis (δF508) appeared at least 53,000. years ago. For many centuries, the disease was thought to be related to witchcraft and the "evil eye" and it was only in 1938 that Dorothy H. Andersen characterized this disorder and suspected its genetic origin. The present article reviews the pathological discoveries and diagnostic and therapeutic advances made in the last 75 years. The review ends with some considerations for the future. © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG.

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