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Tolin D.F.,Institute of Living | Tolin D.F.,Yale University | Frost R.O.,Smith College | Steketee G.,Boston University
Psychiatry Research | Year: 2010

This article describes the development and validation of the Hoarding Rating Scale-Interview (HRS-I), a brief (5-10 min) five-item semi-structured interview that assesses the features of compulsive hoarding (clutter, difficulty discarding, acquisition, distress and impairment). Trained interviewers administered the HRS-I to 136 adults (73 compulsive hoarding, 19 OCD, 44 non-clinical controls) along with a battery of self-report measures. An initial assessment was conducted in the clinic, and a second assessment was conducted in participants' homes. The HRS-I showed high internal consistency and reliability across time and context. The HRS-I clearly differentiated hoarding and non-hoarding participants, and was strongly associated with other measures of hoarding. It is concluded that the HRS-I is a promising measure for determining the presence and severity of compulsive hoarding. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Pearlson G.D.,Yale University | Pearlson G.D.,Institute of Living | Ford J.M.,San Francisco Medical Center | Ford J.M.,University of California at San Francisco
Schizophrenia Bulletin | Year: 2014

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) has provided diagnostic reliability across observers while neglecting biological validity. The current theme issue explores the boundaries between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, using neuro-cognition, systems neuroscience, and genetics as points of departure to begin consideration of a biologically based reclassification of these illnesses. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. Source

Ruge H.,TU Dresden | Jamadar S.,Institute of Living | Jamadar S.,University of Newcastle | Zimmermann U.,TU Dresden | Karayanidis F.,University of Newcastle
Human Brain Mapping | Year: 2013

A large body of behavioural research has used the cued task-switching paradigm to characterize the nature of trial-by-trial preparatory adjustments that enable fluent task implementation when demands on cognitive flexibility are high. This work reviews the growing number of fMRI studies on the same topic, mostly focusing on the central hypothesis that preparatory adjustments should be indicated by enhanced prefrontal and parietal BOLD activation in task switch when compared with task repeat trials under conditions that enable advance task preparation. The evaluation of this straight-forward hypothesis reveals surprisingly heterogeneous results regarding both the precise localization and the very existence of switch-related preparatory activation. Explanations for these inconsistencies are considered on two levels. First, we discuss methodological issues regarding (i) the possible impact of different fMRI-specific experimental design modifications and (ii) statistical uncertainty in the context of massively multivariate imaging data. Second, we discuss explanations related to the multidimensional nature of task preparation itself. Specifically, the precise localization and the size of switch-related preparatory activation might depend on the differential interplay of hierarchical control via abstract task goals and attentional versus action-directed preparatory processes. We argue that different preparatory modes can be adopted relying either on advance goal activation alone or on the advance resolution of competition within action sets or attentional sets. Importantly, while either mode can result in a reduction of behavioral switch cost, only the latter two are supposed to be associated with enhanced switch versus repeat BOLD activation in prepared trial conditions. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Aziz R.,Institute of Living | Aziz R.,Yale University | Aziz R.,University of Connecticut Health Center | Steffens D.C.,University of Connecticut Health Center
Psychiatric Clinics of North America | Year: 2013

Although depression in old age is less common than depression in younger populations, it still affects more than 1 million community-living older adults. Depression in late life has been associated with reduced quality of life and increased mortality from both suicide and illness. Its causes are multifactorial but are prominently related to both biologic and social factors. Psychological factors, although less studied in elders, are also important in understanding its cause. In this article, multiple facets of late-life depression are reviewed, including its clinical presentation, epidemiology, and biopsychosocial causes. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Frost R.O.,Smith College | Steketee G.,Boston University | Tolin D.F.,Institute of Living | Tolin D.F.,Yale University
Depression and Anxiety | Year: 2011

Background: Hoarding Disorder (HD) is currently under consideration for inclusion as a distinct disorder in DSM-5 (1). Few studies have examined comorbidity patterns in people who hoard, and the ones that have suffer from serious methodological shortcomings including drawing from populations already diagnosed with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), using outdated definitions of hoarding, and relying on inadequate assessments of hoarding. The present study is the first large-scale study of comorbidity in a sample of people meeting recently proposed criteria for hoarding disorder (1) and relying on validated assessment procedures. Methods: We compared psychiatric comorbidity in a large HD sample (n = 217) to 96 participants meeting criteria for OCD without HD. Results: High comorbidity rates were observed for major depressive disorder (MDD) as well as acquisition-related impulse control disorders (compulsive buying, kleptomania, and acquiring free things). Fewer than 20% of HD participants met criteria for OCD, and the rate of OCD in HD was higher for men than women. Rates of MDD and acquisition-related impulse control disorders were higher among HD than OCD participants. No specific anxiety disorder was more frequent in HD, but social phobia was more frequent among men with HD than among men with OCD. Inattentive ADHD was diagnosed in 28% of HD participants and was significantly more frequent than among OCD participants (3%). Conclusions: These findings form important base rates for developing research and treatments for hoarding disorder. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

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