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Chang M.-L.,Institute of Livestock Research | Chang M.-L.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Chen N.-Y.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Liao L.-J.,National Kaohsiung Normal University | And 2 more authors.
Botanical Studies | Year: 2012

Cadmium (Cd) decreased the growth of rice expressed as fresh weight. Root growth was inhibited more severely in Taichung Native 1 rice than in Tainung 67. The differences in peroxidase (POX) activity and lignin content between Cd-tolerant and Cd-sensitive rice varieties were compared. In our study, POX activity in Tainung 67 increased significantly in Cd-treated tissues. However, enhanced POX activity in Cd-treated tissues was accompanied by a H 2O 2 decrease. The H 2O 2 accumulation in the Cd-treated tissues of Taichung Native 1 rice may be due to the lower amount of POX enhancement induced by Cd. The increased activity in cationic (pI 8.6) and anionic (pI 4.5) POXs correlated with the increase in POX transcripts, and therefore was mostly due to the de novo synthesis of the cationic (pI 8.6) and anionic (pI 4.5) POXs in Cd-treated roots of Tainung 67. For promoter analysis, Tainung 67 (Japonica type) owned ten conserved cores of CURECORECR sequence (5'-GTAC-3'), a copper-response element (CuRE), involved in heavy metals response. Taichung Native 1 (Indica type) had only eight CURE. This implies that a Cd-tolerant cultivar, Tainung 67 (Japonica type), may receive more signals with Cd treatment, enhancing more POX synthesis, which leads to the production of more lignin to deal with Cd stress.


Huang P.-L.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Huang P.-L.,Kaohsiung District Agricultural Research and Extension Station | Liu Z.-H.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Chang M.-L.,National Sun Yat - sen University | And 2 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2011

This study established a highly effective micropropagation system to obtain good plantlet proliferation from floral organs via callus induction and bud differentiation in Guzmania 'Hilda' bromeliad. The best frequencies of organogenic callus formation (20% in petal and 35% in ovary explants) were obtained on media containing a combination of 1.0mgl-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) with 1.0mgl-1 α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 1.5mgl-1 2,4-D with 0.5mgl-1 NAA, respectively. Organogenic calli were cultured on medium with 1.0mgl-1 NAA and 0.5mgl-1 1-phenyl-3-(1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl) urea (TDZ) induce the differentiation and regeneration of adventitious buds into plantlets. When the plantlets were cultured in a medium with optimum NAA concentration (0.5-1.0mgl-1) significant improvement in regeneration and elongation was achieved within one month. This overcame the difficulty of delayed elongation in Guzmania plantlets. More than 99% of the regenerated and acclimatized plantlets developed to the flowering stage. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Khol-Parisini A.,Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds | Humer E.,Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds | Sizmaz O.,Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds | Sizmaz O.,Ankara University | And 5 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Ruminal disappearance kinetics of nutrients such as phosphorus (P), starch and protein in cereal grains is determinant of their nutritional and health value in ruminants. The objective of the present in vivo and in situ trials was to evaluate whether feeding barley grain processed with lactic acid (LA), with or without thermal treatment, affects in situ degradation kinetics of nutrients, reticuloruminal pH dynamics, and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) in dairy cows. The experiment involved 6 rumen-fistulated Holstein cows in a double 3. ×. 3 Latin square design fed a diet based on differently processed barley grain: untreated grain as control (CON), or grain treated with 1% LA alone (LA diet), or 1% LA plus oven-heating (LAH diet) prior to feeding. Each experimental period lasted 21 d, with the first 11 d used for adaptation to the diets. The in situ trial consisted in the incubation of the differently treated barley grains (i.e., CON, LA, LAH) up to 48. h in the rumen of cows fed diets containing the respective barleys. The reticuloruminal pH and temperature were continuously measured throughout the experiment via wireless indwelling sensors. In situ data demonstrated increased (P<. 0.001) disappearance of barley P, being on average more than twice as high during the first 24. h of incubation with LA and LAH compared to CON barley. In contrast, the degradation of starch decreased (P<. 0.05) after 2. h and 4. h of the ruminal incubation, but not thereafter. Feed intake remained unchanged among treatment groups, whereas ATTD of dry matter was slightly greater (P= 0.05) in cows fed the LA-treated barley. There was no effect of diet on reticuloruminal pH and temperature dynamics either. In conclusion, the present study indicates that treatment of barley grain with LA and LAH lowers rumen degradability of starch early after incubation, without affecting reticuloruminal pH and the ATTD of most nutrients. The improved ruminal disappearance of barley P suggests an improved solubility and faster ruminal availability of organic P of the treated grain, and warrants further investigations to tap its potential with regards to improved P nutrition and minimization of P excretion in dairy cows. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Gruber L.,Institute of Livestock Research | Urdl M.,Institute of Livestock Research | Obritzhauser W.,Chamber of Veterinaries | Schauer A.,Institute of Livestock Research | And 2 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2014

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of pre partum (PRE) and post partum (POST) dietary energy and nutrient supply (E) and their interactions on feed intake, performance and energy status in dairy cows of three breeds. In this experiment, the effects of three energy and nutrient supply levels (low (L), medium (M), high (H)), both pre-calving and post-calving, were investigated, using a 3×3 factorial arrangement of treatments. In both phases (84 days pre- and 105 days post-calving) E levels applied to a total of 81 multiparous cows of breeds Simmental (SI), Brown Swiss (BS) and Holstein-Friesian (HF; n=27 for each breed), were 75%, 100% and 125% of recommendations of the German Society of Nutrition Physiology (GfE). Dry matter intake (DMI) was restricted, if energy intake exceeded target values. Pre partum DMI and energy intake were different as designed, liveweight and body condition score (BCS) of SI cows were higher, but EB was lower, compared to BS and HF cows. Milk yield and composition were influenced by all three main experimental factors (EPRE, EPOST, breed). Energy-corrected milk yield was 25.6, 28.6 and 30.1 kg/day for LPRE, MPRE and HPRE as well as 21.5, 30.1 and 32.6 kg/day for LPOST, MPOST and HPOST, respectively. Numerically, only for milk protein content the interactions EPRE×EPOST and EPRE×breed reached significance. Impact of energy supply pre-calving was more pronounced when cows had lower energy supply post-calving and vice versa. On the other hand, milk yield response of cows to energy supply above requirements was greater for cows that were fed on a low energy level pre partum. Impact of energy level pre partum was higher for HF cows, showing that their milk production relies to a greater extent on mobilization of body reserves. Increasing energy supply pre partum led to a more negative energy balance post partum, mainly by increasing milk yield and content, whereas feed intake was slightly reduced. Increasing energy supply post partum enhanced milk yield as well as milk protein and lactose content. Calculated energy balance corresponded well with liveweight and BCS change. Response of milk yield to increasing energy supply followed the principle of diminishing returns, since energy was increasingly partitioned to body retention. Increasing energy supply pre partum enhances milk yield and content post partum, but exacerbates negative energy balance and its consequences. Copyright © The Animal Consortium 2013.


Humer E.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Khol-Parisini A.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Metzler-Zebeli B.U.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Gruber L.,Institute of Livestock Research | Zebeli Q.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

A decrease in insulin sensitivity enhances adipose tissue lipolysis helping early lactation cows counteracting their energy deficit. However, excessive lipolysis poses serious health risks for cows, and its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. The present study used targeted ESI-LC-MS/MS-based metabolomics and indirect insulin sensitivity measurements to evaluate metabolic alterations in the serum of dairy cows of various parities experiencing variable lipolysis early postpartum. Thirty (12 primiparous and 18 multiparous) cows of Holstein Friesian and Simmental breeds, fed the same diet and kept under the same management conditions, were sampled at d 21 postpartum and classified as low (n = 10), medium (n = 8), and high (n = 12) lipolysis groups, based on serum concentration of nonesterified fatty acids. Overall, excessive lipolysis in the high group came along with impaired estimated insulin sensitivity and characteristic shifts in acylcarnitine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine and lysophospholipid metabolome profiles compared to the low group. From the detected phosphatidylcholines mainly those with diacyl-residues showed differences among lipolysis groups. Furthermore, more than half of the detected sphingomyelins were increased in cows experiencing high lipomobilization. Additionally, strong differences in serum acylcarnitines were noticed among lipolysis groups. The study suggests an altered serum phospholipidome in dairy cows associated with an increase in certain long-chain sphingomyelins and the progression of disturbed insulin function. In conclusion, the present study revealed 37 key metabolites as part of alterations in the synthesis or breakdown of sphingolipids and phospholipids associated with lowered estimated insulin sensitivity and excessive lipolysis in early-lactating cows. © 2016 Humer et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Urdl M.,Institute of Livestock Research | Gruber L.,Institute of Livestock Research | Obritzhauser W.,Chamber of Veterinaries | Schauer A.,Institute of Livestock Research
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition | Year: 2015

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of three energy supply (E) levels [low (L), medium (M), high (H)], both pre-partum (PRE) and post-partum (POST), and their interactions on metabolic parameters and energy balance (EB) in dairy cows of three breeds. In both phases, E levels applied to a total of 81 multiparous cows of breeds Simmental (SI), Brown Swiss (BS) and Holstein-Friesian (HF; n = 27 for each breed) were 75%, 100% and 125% of recommendations of the German Society of Nutrition Physiology, using a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. During the pre-calving period, serum concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were higher for LPRE cows, and glucose concentrations were elevated for HPRE cows. During the lactation period, NEFA concentrations were greatest for treatment LPOST. Mean concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) were highest for cows of the LPOST treatment, intermediate for MPOST and lowest for HPOST. Glucose concentrations were lower for LPOST cows. SI cows had lower BHB concentrations both pre- and post-calving and higher glucose concentrations during early lactation than the other breeds. BHB concentration POST was highest for BS cows. Restricted feeding PRE resulted in a better energy status of cows fed above energy requirements POST (EPRE × EPOST interaction). HF cows had a higher EB pre-calving, whereas SI cows had a less negative EB during early lactation, compared with the other breeds respectively. Correlations of serum NEFA, BHB and glucose concentrations with EB were strongest during the transition period. Results suggest that controlling energy intake during the dry period might be advantageous for the energy status of dairy cows after calving, whereas energy restriction in early lactation leads to metabolic stress. Evidence is provided of a clear relationship between EB and the blood metabolites NEFA and BHB, especially in the transition period. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Humer E.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Khol-Parisini A.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Gruber L.,Institute of Livestock Research | Wittek T.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | And 2 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2016

Metabolic adaptation includes an array of concerted metabolic and endocrine events that enable dairy cows bridging the period of energy deficit at the onset of lactation. The present study evaluated metabolic, endocrine and reticuloruminal pH changes in 30 (25 Holstein and five Simmental) periparturient dairy cows experiencing variable lipolysis early postpartum. Cows were fed the same close-up and fresh lactation diets and kept in the same management conditions. Blood samples were collected at day 14, and day 4, relative to expected parturition, and at day 2, and day 21 postpartum, and serum metabolites and hormones related to glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as concentrations of several liver enzymes and acute phase proteins were determined. Additionally, reticuloruminal pH was monitored every 10 min over the last 3 days of the observation period. BW and milk yields were recorded and balances of energy and protein were assessed. Based on serum concentration of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) postpartum, cows were retrospectively classified into low (n=8), medium (n=11), and high (n=11) lipolysis groups, with NEFA levels of <0.4 mmol/l, between 0.4 and 0.7 mmol/l, and >0.7 mmol/l, respectively. Overall, elevated NEFA concentrations in the High group went along with a higher ratio of NEFA to cholesterol and reduced insulin sensitivity. While serum glucose, energy deficit and BW loss did not differ, cows of the High group exhibited increased lactate concentrations in the serum, compared with the Medium group. No differences in liver enzymes and acute phase proteins were evidenced among fat mobilization groups, whereas concentration of serum billirubin was lowest in the Low group after parturition. Data of milk yield and milk energy output showed no differences among groups, despite divergences in calculated energy balance and BW change postpartum. Cows of the Low group tended to increase dry matter intake but also showed longer time duration of pH below 6.0 in the reticulorumen (on average 299 min/day compared with 99 and 91 min/day for Medium and High groups, respectively). Differences in metabolic, endocrine and reticuloruminal pH responses indicate diverse metabolic adaptation strategies of early-lactation cows to cope with energy deficit postpartum. © The Animal Consortium 2016


Velik M.,Institute of Livestock Research | Gangnat I.,Wageningen University | Kitzer R.,Institute of Livestock Research | Finotti E.,Institute of Livestock Research | Steinwidder A.,Institute for Organic Farming and Farm Animal Biodiversity
Czech Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2013

Economical and ecological issues as well as consumer demand for sustainably produced agricultural food rise the trends to fatten beef cattle on pasture during the grazing season. However, particularly for mountainous regions, implications of turning beef cattle on pasture remain unclear concerning animal performance and product quality. Therefore, the present study was conducted to compare short grass grazing with a semi-intensive indoor fattening system in the Alps. Charolais × Simmental heifers of about 300 kg live weight were either fattened on continuous pasture (3-5 cm sward height) and finished in barn (Pasture group) or solely raised in barn on a grass silage-based diet with 2 kg concentrates (Indoor group). Animals were slaughtered at 550 kg live weight. Results showed that continuous pasture with a finishing period in barn allowed as good growth and carcass performance as fattening in barn. Over the whole experiment, average daily gain was 993 g/day in the Pasture group and 1026 g/day in the Indoor group. During the growing period, daily gain was numerically lower in the Pasture group than in the Indoor group (767 g and 936 g, respectively). Carcass fatness of pasture fed animals was lower but within the desirable threshold. Water holding capacity, meat colour, and shear force, an indicator for beef tenderness, were unaffected by feeding practices, but fat colour was more yellow in the Pasture group. Furthermore, meat from animals fattened on pasture had lower intramuscular fat contents and enhanced proportions of nutritionally valuable omega-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids. © 2011 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences.


PubMed | Institute of Livestock Research, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna and Free University of Berlin
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience | Year: 2016

Metabolic adaptation includes an array of concerted metabolic and endocrine events that enable dairy cows bridging the period of energy deficit at the onset of lactation. The present study evaluated metabolic, endocrine and reticuloruminal pH changes in 30 (25 Holstein and five Simmental) periparturient dairy cows experiencing variable lipolysis early postpartum. Cows were fed the same close-up and fresh lactation diets and kept in the same management conditions. Blood samples were collected at day 14, and day 4, relative to expected parturition, and at day 2, and day 21 postpartum, and serum metabolites and hormones related to glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as concentrations of several liver enzymes and acute phase proteins were determined. Additionally, reticuloruminal pH was monitored every 10 min over the last 3 days of the observation period. BW and milk yields were recorded and balances of energy and protein were assessed. Based on serum concentration of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) postpartum, cows were retrospectively classified into low (n=8), medium (n=11), and high (n=11) lipolysis groups, with NEFA levels of 0.7 mmol/l, respectively. Overall, elevated NEFA concentrations in the High group went along with a higher ratio of NEFA to cholesterol and reduced insulin sensitivity. While serum glucose, energy deficit and BW loss did not differ, cows of the High group exhibited increased lactate concentrations in the serum, compared with the Medium group. No differences in liver enzymes and acute phase proteins were evidenced among fat mobilization groups, whereas concentration of serum billirubin was lowest in the Low group after parturition. Data of milk yield and milk energy output showed no differences among groups, despite divergences in calculated energy balance and BW change postpartum. Cows of the Low group tended to increase dry matter intake but also showed longer time duration of pH below 6.0 in the reticulorumen (on average 299 min/day compared with 99 and 91 min/day for Medium and High groups, respectively). Differences in metabolic, endocrine and reticuloruminal pH responses indicate diverse metabolic adaptation strategies of early-lactation cows to cope with energy deficit postpartum.


PubMed | Institute of Livestock Research and University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of applied microbiology | Year: 2016

To evaluate the effects of treating barley grain with lactic acid (LA) and heat on postprandial dynamics of 19 microbial taxa and fermentation in the rumen of dairy cows.This study was designed as a double 33 Latin square with six rumen-cannulated cows and three diets either containing untreated control barley or barley treated with 1% LA and 1% LA and heat (LAH, 55C). Microbial populations, pH and volatile fatty acids were assessed in rumen liquid and solids during the postprandial period. Propionate increased and butyrate decreased in rumen solids of cows fed LA and LAH treated barley compared to the control barley. The LA but not LAH treatment depressed Fibrobacter succinogenes in rumen liquid and solids, whereas the opposite effect was observed for Ruminococcus albus in both fractions and Ruminococcus flavefaciens in rumen solids. LA promoted Ruminobacter amylophilus with the effect being more pronounced with LAH. The Lactobacillus group and Megasphaera elsdenii increased in both fractions with LA but not with LAH.LA and LAH treatment of barley differently altered ruminal abundance of certain bacterial taxa and fungi and increased propionate fermentation in rumen solids, whereby LA and LAH effects were consistent and mostly independent of the rumen fraction and time after barley feeding.Results provided evidence that LA and LAH treatment of barley can enhance rumen propionate fermentation without adversely affecting rumen pH. As propionate is the major contributor to gluconeogenesis in ruminants, the present barley treatment may have practical application to enhance energy supply in dairy cows.

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