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Bhubaneshwar, India

Bharati A.,Institute of Life science
PloS one | Year: 2012

Artemisinin, a secondary metabolite produced in Artemisia plant species, besides having antimalarial properties is also phytotoxic. Although, the phytotoxic activity of the compound has been long recognized, no information is available on the mechanism of action of the compound on photosynthetic activity of the plant. In this report, we have evaluated the effect of artemisinin on photoelectron transport activity of chloroplast thylakoid membrane. The inhibitory effect of the compound, under in vitro condition, was pronounced in loosely and fully coupled thylakoids; being strong in the former. The extent of inhibition was drastically reduced in the presence of uncouplers like ammonium chloride or gramicidin; a characteristic feature described for energy transfer inhibitors. The compound, on the other hand, when applied to plants (in vivo), behaved as a potent inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport. The major site of its action was identified to be the Q(B); the secondary quinone moiety of photosystemII complex. Analysis of photoreduction kinetics of para-benzoquinone and duroquinone suggest that the inhibition leads to formation of low pool of plastoquinol, which becomes limiting for electron flow through photosystemI. Further it was ascertained that the in vivo inhibitory effect appeared as a consequence of the formation of an unidentified artemisinin-metabolite rather than by the interaction of the compound per se. The putative metabolite of artemisinin is highly reactive in instituting the inhibition of photosynthetic electron flow eventually reducing the plant growth.

Veiga-Parga T.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Sehrawat S.,Institute of Life science | Rouse B.T.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville
Immunological Reviews | Year: 2013

The host response to viruses includes multiple cell types that have regulatory function. Most information focuses on CD4+ regulatory T cells that express the transcription factor Foxp3+ (Tregs), which are the topic of this review. We explain how viruses through specific and non-specific means can trigger the response of thymus-derived natural Tregs as well as induce Tregs. The latter derive under appropriate stimulation conditions either from uncommitted precursors or from differentiated cells that convert to become Tregs. We describe instances where Tregs appear to limit the efficacy of antiviral protective immunity and other, perhaps more common, immune-mediated inflammatory conditions, where the Tregs function to limit the extent of tissue damage that occurs during a virus infection. We discuss the controversial roles that Tregs may play in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency and hepatitis C virus infections. The issue of plasticity is discussed, as this may result in Tregs losing their protective function when present in inflammatory environments. Finally, we mention approaches used to manipulate Treg numbers and function and assess their current value and likely future success to manage the outcome of virus infection, especially those that are responsible for chronic tissue damage. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Singh A.,Institute of Life science | Sahoo S.K.,Institute of Life science
Drug Discovery Today | Year: 2014

Multifunctional nanoplatforms represent a cutting edge tool in biomedical applications as a result of their applicability in the concurrent monitoring of medical treatment. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have generated great interest in the field of cancer nanotheranostics owing to their intrinsic magnetic property that enables them to be used as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging and as a therapeutic system in conjunction with hyperthermia. In addition, the physical properties and biocompatibility of MNPs help them to act as efficient drug carriers for targeted therapeutic regimes. In this review, we have discussed the different theranostic applications of MNPs. Further, we have raised the current challenges associated with the clinical translation of MNPs along with future opportunities in this field. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Dilnawaz F.,Institute of Life science | Sahoo S.K.,Institute of Life science
Drug Discovery Today | Year: 2015

The diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) represent one of the fastest growing areas of concern requiring urgent medical attention. Treatment of CNS ailments is hindered owing to different physiological barriers including the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which limits the accessibility of potential drugs. With the assistance of a nanotechnology-based drug delivery strategy, the problems could be overcome. Recently, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have proven immensely useful as drug carriers for site-specific delivery and as contrast agents owing to their magnetic susceptibility and biocompatibility. By utilizing MNPs, diagnosis and treatment of CNS diseases have progressed by overcoming the hurdles of the BBB. In this review, the therapeutic aspect and the future prospects related to the theranostic approach of MNPs are discussed. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Misra R.,Institute of Life science | Sahoo S.K.,Institute of Life science
Molecular Pharmaceutics | Year: 2011

Doxorubicin (DOX) is a broad-spectrum anthracycline antibiotic used to treat a variety of cancers including leukemia. Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) blasts like K562 cells are resistant to apoptosis induced by DOX due to several reasons, the primary being the sequestration of drug into cytoplasmic vesicles and induction of multidrug resistance (MDR) gene expression with DOX treatment resulting in intracellular resistance to this drug. Moreover, expression of antiapoptotic protein BCL-2 and the hybrid gene bcr/abl in K562 cells contributes resistance to DOX. Studies have shown that curcumin (CUR) has a pleiotropic therapeutic effect in cancer treatment, as it is an inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) as well as a potent downregulator of MDR transporters. In this study, we investigated the potential benefit of using DOX and CUR in a single nanoparticle (NP) formulation to inhibit the development of drug resistance for the enhancement of antiproliferative activity of DOX in K562 cells. Results illustrate that the dual (DOX+CUR) drug loaded NPs were effectively delivered into K562 cells. CUR not only facilitates the retention of DOX in nucleus for a longer period of time but also inhibits the gradual expression of MDR1 and BCL-2 at the mRNA level in K562 cells. Moreover, Western blot results confirm that in combination both of the drugs were capable of inducing apoptosis even if in a lower concentration compared to either single drug in both solution or in formulation. Combinational therapy by using DOX and CUR, especially when administered in the NP formulation, has enhanced the cytotoxicity in K562 cells by promoting the apoptotic response. Overall, this combinational strategy has significant promise in the clinical management of intractable diseases, especially leukemia. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

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