Institute Of Lenvironnement Et Of Recherches Agricoles

Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Institute Of Lenvironnement Et Of Recherches Agricoles

Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: KBBE-2009-1-2-09 | Award Amount: 1.16M | Year: 2010

Despite the growing efforts of research and extension programs on the promotion of conservation agriculture (CA), there has been limited success with adopting CA on smallholder farms in Africa. African farming systems are highly heterogeneous in terms of agro-ecological, socio-economical and cultural environments and opportunities for CA necessarily require local adaptation. Simulation models and modelling frameworks may be used to assist our ability to better understand and target innovative technologies such as CA within complex farming systems. Over 30 months, the overall objective of this project is to assess and learn jointly from past and on-going CA experiences under which conditions and to what extent does CA strengthen the socio-economic position of landholders in Africa. For this purpose, a consortium comprising 10 highly experienced, complementary European, African and International partners has been assembled. It will develop an up-to-date knowledge database on CA practices in Africa. Biophysical, socioeconomic and conceptual models of innovation systems will be applied to a series of case studies across five regions in Africa to analyze the impact and adoption of CA at different scales (field, farm, region). This will facilitate the identification of pathways to make models readily applicable for decision-makers in different African regions and under different conditions. It will allow to set the agenda for future research, development and promotion of CA in Africa. Dissemination, networking and training will make the project outcomes highly accessible to the principal stakeholders (researchers, public and private extension services, farmer organisations, national and regional policymakers, private sector).

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2010.3.1.1-4 | Award Amount: 2.62M | Year: 2011

WAHARA will take a transdisciplinary approach to develop innovative, locally adapted water harvesting solutions with wider relevance for rainfed Africa. Water harvesting technologies play a key role in bringing about an urgently needed increase in agricultural productivity, and to improve food and water security in rural areas. Water harvesting technologies enhance water buffering capacity, contributing to the resilience of African drylands to climate variability and climate change, as well as to socio-economic changes such as population growth and urbanisation. To ensure the continental relevance of project results, research will concentrate on four geographically dispersed study sites in Tunisia, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia and Zambia, covering diverse socio-economic conditions and a range from arid to sub-humid climates. The project emphasizes: i) participatory technology design, i.e. selecting and adapting technologies that have synergies with existing farming systems and that are preferred by local stakeholders, yet tap from a global repertoire of innovative options; ii) sustainable impact, i.e. technologies that combine multiple uses of water, green and blue water management, and integrated water and nutrient management. Using models, water harvesting systems will be designed for maximum impact without compromising downstream water-users, contributing to sustainable regional development; iii) integration and adaptability, i.e. paying attention to the generic lessons to be learned from local experiences, and developing guidelines on how technologies can be adapted to different conditions; and iv) learning and action, i.e. a strategy will be developed to enable learning and action from successes achieved locally: a. within a region, to upscale from water harvesting technologies to water harvesting systems, and b. across regions, promoting knowledge exchange at continental scale.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2010.3.1.1-4 | Award Amount: 2.46M | Year: 2011

The WHaTeR project aims to contribute to the development of appropriate water harvesting techniques (WHTs). These WHTs should be sustainable under dynamic global and regional pressure, and strengthen rainfed agriculture, improve rural livelihood and increase food production and security in Sub-Saharan Africa. In total 3 European and 5 African organisations will be involved; namely VU University Amsterdam (The Netherlands), Newcastle University (United Kingdom), Stockholm Resilience Centre (Sweden), University of Kwazulu Natal (South Africa), Sokoine University (Tanzania), Southern and Eastern Africa Rainwater Network (Kenya), National Institute for Environment and Agricultural Research (Burkina Faso) and Arba Minch University (Ethiopia). Project activities will be divided over 14 Work Packages. The first Work Package covers project management and the second comprises a situation analysis - through revisits to water harvesting sites in 15 African countries studied previously by participating organisations . The next four Work Packages focus on detailed research and technology development activities on cross-cutting themes (environmental sustainability; technology development; livelihood improvement; uptake and upscaling; and global and regional impact) and will be conducted together with four country-based Work Packages (in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, South Africa and Tanzania). One Work Package will concentrate on stakeholder communication and outreaching activities, and the final Work Packages consists of synthesis and dissemination of project results, inclduing production of guidelines for WHTs. The project will spend an estimated 74% of the budget on RTD, 13% on other costs related to stakeholder workshops and outreaching and 13% on project management. The expected impacts of the project comprise technology support for farmers, development of stakeholder communication networks, innovative water harvesting systems, tools for impact assessment, upstream-downstream land use, and policy support for integrated water management and adaptation to climate change to promote EU and African strategies on strengthening rainfed agriculture, food security and livelihoods.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: SFS-06-2014 | Award Amount: 1.78M | Year: 2015

PROIntensAfrica intends to develop a proposal for a long term research and innovation partnership between Europe and Africa, focusing on the improvement of the food and nutrition security and the livelihoods of African farmers by exploring and exploiting the diversity of pathways to sustainable intensification of African agro-food systems. The exploration will include environmental, economic and social externalities along the whole value chains. PROIntensAfrica has the ambition to formulate a research and innovation agenda, identifying the domains in need for further research to realize the potential of African food systems. In addition, PROIntensAfrica will suggest governance mechanisms that are effective in supporting the partnership. Key is the perception that pooling resources is the best way to align existing and initiate new research. This perception follows the policy of the EC, where instruments of joint programming like ERA-NET, JPI and article 185 aim to accomplish synergy and increase the effectiveness of resources. Pooling resources goes beyond the scientific domain and reaches into the policy domain. Consequently, besides being rooted in sound and challenging research, a partnership proposal needs to meet national and international policies to fly. Therefore PROIntensAfrica pay specific attention to engage with the policy domain, as exemplified by the intended creation of a policy support group. The rationale of the project is that a variety of pathways leads to sustainable intensification of African food systems. Different pathways are advocated in literature. High-input farming systems, for example, contrast with organic farming systems, each with their own supporters and criticasters. It is the conviction of the PROIntensAfrica consortium that moving beyond that debate will open exciting new pathways, and that combining elements of different systems will yield innovative systems that are optimally adapted to specific contexts.

Saiz G.,University of St. Andrews | Saiz G.,James Cook University | Bird M.I.,James Cook University | Domingues T.,University of Edinburgh | And 10 more authors.
Global Change Biology | Year: 2012

We examine the influence of climate, soil properties and vegetation characteristics on soil organic carbon (SOC) along a transect of West African ecosystems sampled across a precipitation gradient on contrasting soil types stretching from Ghana (15°N) to Mali (7°N). Our findings derive from a total of 1108 soil cores sampled over 14 permanent plots. The observed pattern in SOC stocks reflects the very different climatic conditions and contrasting soil properties existing along the latitudinal transect. The combined effects of these factors strongly influence vegetation structure. SOC stocks in the first 2 m of soil ranged from 20 Mg C ha -1 for a Sahelian savanna in Mali to over 120 Mg C ha -1 for a transitional forest in Ghana. The degree of interdependence between soil bulk density (SBD) and soil properties is highlighted by the strong negative relationships observed between SBD and SOC (r 2> 0.84). A simple predictive function capable of encompassing the effect of climate, soil properties and vegetation type on SOC stocks showed that available water and sand content taken together could explain 0.84 and 0.86 of the total variability in SOC stocks observed to 0.3 and 1.0 m depth respectively. Used in combination with a suitable climatic parameter, sand content is a good predictor of SOC stored in highly weathered dry tropical ecosystems with arguably less confounding effects than provided by clay content. There was an increased contribution of resistant SOC to the total SOC pool for lower rainfall soils, this likely being the result of more frequent fire events in the grassier savannas of the more arid regions. This work provides new insights into the mechanisms determining the distribution of carbon storage in tropical soils and should contribute significantly to the development of robust predictive models of biogeochemical cycling and vegetation dynamics in tropical regions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Scheiter S.,Biodiversitat und Klima Forschungszentrum BiK F | Savadogo P.,Institute Of Lenvironnement Et Of Recherches Agricoles | Savadogo P.,International Center for Research in Agroforestry
Ecological Modelling | Year: 2016

The welfare of people in the tropics and sub-tropics strongly depends on goods and services that savanna ecosystems supply, such as food and livestock production, fuel wood, and climate regulation. Flows of these services are strongly influenced by climate, land use and their interactions. Savannas cover c. 20% of the Earth's land surface and changes in the structure and dynamics of savanna vegetation may strongly influence local people's living conditions, as well as the climate system and global biogeochemical cycles. In this study, we use a dynamic vegetation model, the aDGVM, to explore interactive effects of climate and land use on the vegetation structure and distribution of West African savannas under current and anticipated future environmental conditions. We parameterized the model for West African savannas and extended it by including sub-models to simulate fire management, grazing, and wood cutting. The model projects that under future climate without human land use impacts, large savanna areas would shift toward more wood dominated vegetation due to CO2 fertilization effects, increased water use efficiency and decreased fire activity. However, land use activities could maintain desired vegetation states that ensure fluxes of important ecosystem services, even under anticipated future conditions. Ecosystem management can mitigate climate change impacts on vegetation and delay or avoid undesired vegetation shifts. The results highlight the effects of land use on the future distribution and dynamics of savannas. The identification of management strategies is essential to maintain important ecosystem services under future conditions in savannas worldwide. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Institute Of Lenvironnement Et Of Recherches Agricoles and CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Date: 2011-05-26

The invention provides a composition for the inoculation in a plant of agrobacteria transfected by expression vectors, in order to produce in said plant a protein of interest or a derivative of said protein, by deletion or by mutation, characterised in that it comprises

Coulibaly-Lingani P.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Coulibaly-Lingani P.,Institute Of Lenvironnement Et Of Recherches Agricoles | Savadogo P.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Savadogo P.,Institute Of Lenvironnement Et Of Recherches Agricoles | And 2 more authors.
Forest Policy and Economics | Year: 2011

In attempts to foster sustainable forest management practices, participation of local communities has become widely recognized as a better alternative than the traditional protectionist approach. This paper analyzed factors influencing local people's participation in forest management program in Sissili and Ziro provinces, southern Burkina Faso based on data collected through a household survey of 165 members of forest management groups using factor analysis and multiple regression. Factor analysis resulted in a three-factor solution, which accounted for 64.82% of the total variance. Participation in decision-making, followed by participation in forest conservation and economic benefits were found to be the main factors influencing participation in the forest management program. Gender, household size, income source, land tenure status and technical assistance also appeared to influence members' participation in the program. The results indicate that participatory management program can be enhanced by changing the administrative structure of forest management groups in order to empower members in decision-making processes. In addition, increasing women's participation and more equitable benefit-sharing among user groups are essential in improving the success of the participatory forest management program. Thus, policies reforms to improve the structure of the forest management groups and to establish equitable benefit-sharing mechanisms are essential to improve the participation of local people in the forest management program and, hence, require immediate attention. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Bouda H.-N.,Center for International Forestry Research | Savadogo P.,Institute Of Lenvironnement Et Of Recherches Agricoles | Tiveau D.,Center for International Forestry Research | Ouedraogo B.,University of Ouagadougou
Sustainable Development | Year: 2011

This study examines challenges associated with early stages of decentralizing the administration and management of forest resources in the Centre-West Region of Burkina Faso. It is based on fieldwork using rapid rural appraisal, focus group discussions and interviews with key stakeholders, methodology to explore the strengths and weaknesses of participatory forest management, and the main issues and challenges involved in these processes. The study found that a shift of administrative authority to the local level will not guarantee transparency and good governance in the forest sector unless measures are taken to remove challenging obstacles. The central government is still reluctant to decentralize a revenue-generating sector such as forestry and the involvement of civil society remains weak. Decentralization also results in a plethora of conflicts at the local level as new responsibilities and opportunities arise with the devolution of new powers to the community. Decentralization of forest management will probably remain a work in progress for the foreseeable future. Thus, we recommend the introduction or reinforcement of participatory development programs through local dialogue with various stakeholders and an investigation of new policy and institutional arrangements that may promote equitable forest management. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

Bayala J.,World Agroforestry Center | Sanou J.,Institute Of Lenvironnement Et Of Recherches Agricoles | Teklehaimanot Z.,Bangor University | Kalinganire A.,World Agroforestry Center | Ouedraogo S.J.,Institute du Sahel INSAH
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability | Year: 2014

In the Sahelian zone of West Africa, crops grown under a discontinuous cover of scattered trees dominate many landscapes and constitute the so-called parklands. These systems reflect the ecological knowledge of the farmers of such risk prone environments. Agroforestry parklands are playing an important role, through trees and shrubs providing soil cover that reduces erosion and buffers the impacts of climate change. They also provide green fodder that complements crop residues for livestock feeds, and fruits and leaves for human consumption and for income generation. The interactions between various components of the system influence the ecosystem service functions of trees of parklands (provisioning, regulating and supporting services) in several ways. These ecosystem functions have been at the center of the local ecological knowledge guiding the management options of the farmers and have also attracted the attention of scientists. Findings revealed new challenges that call for production options ensuring increased and diversified productivity of the systems while preserving the environment. Research on such challenges must adopt an inclusive approach based on local knowledge supported by science-based analyses of the socio-ecological systems in the face of high population pressure and climate change. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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