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Oladeinde B.H.,Igbinedion University Okada | Omoregie R.,University of Benin | Odia I.,Institute of Lassa Fever Research and Control
International Journal of Health Promotion and Education | Year: 2015

Lassa fever is endemic in west Africa. Persons at greatest risk are those living in rural areas with poor sanitary conditions and overcrowding. Against this background, this study aimed at assessing public awareness of Lassa fever among residents of three rural communities in Edo State, Nigeria. A total of 380 persons resident in rural Okada, Ogbese and Utese communities of Edo State, Nigeria were enrolled for this study. Age range of participants was between 15 and 69 years. A structured questionnaire was administered to all volunteer subjects to obtain relevant information. Irrespective of community studied, a total of 28 (7.4%) participants reported to have heard of Lassa fever. Male gender was associated with awareness of Lassa fever in all communities surveyed. The television was the most popular source of Lassa fever awareness in all communities studied. Among participants who reported to have heard of Lassa fever, vehicles of transmission of disease mentioned included mosquito bites 9 (32.1%), dog bites 7 (25%) and eating of rat-contaminated food 2 (7.1%). Sleeping under mosquito bed nets and intake of herbal concoction were the principal mode of prevention of Lassa fever reported by respondents. A total of 15 (53.4%) and 16 (57.1%) of persons aware of Lassa fever had no idea of any vehicle of transmission and mode of prevention of the disease, respectively. Grave misconceptions on mode of transmission and prevention of Lassa fever were observed in all communities surveyed. Renewed effort at enlightening residents of rural communities on causes, modes of transmission and prevention of Lassa fever is advocated. © 2014 Institute of Health Promotion and Education.

Ajayi N.A.,Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki | Nwigwe C.G.,Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki | Azuogu B.N.,Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki | Onyire B.N.,Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Objectives: Despite the epidemic nature of Lassa fever (LF), details of outbreaks and response strategies have not been well documented in resource-poor settings. We describe the course of a LF outbreak in Ebonyi State, Nigeria, during January to March 2012. Methods: We analyzed clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory data from surveillance records and hospital statistics during the outbreak. Fisher's exact tests were used to compare proportions and t-tests to compare differences in means. Results: The outbreak response consisted of effective coordination, laboratory testing, active surveillance, community mobilization, contact and suspected case evaluation, and case management. Twenty LF cases (10 confirmed and 10 suspected) were recorded during the outbreak. Nosocomial transmission to six health workers occurred through the index case. Only 1/110 contacts had an asymptomatic infection. Overall, there was high case fatality rate among all cases (6/20; 30%). Patients who received ribavirin were less likely to die than those who did not (p = 0.003). The mean delay to presentation for patients who died was 11 ± 3.5 days, while for those who survived was 6 ± 2.6 days (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The response strategies contained the epidemic. Challenges to control efforts included poor local laboratory capacity, inadequate/poor quality of protective materials, fear among health workers, and inadequate emergency preparedness. © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases.

Kalu E.I.,Federal Medical Center | Ojide C.K.,Ebonyi State University | Nwadike V.U.,Federal Medical Center | Ogbaini-Emovon E.,Institute of Lassa Fever Research and Control | Okafor G.O.C.,Federal Medical Center
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease | Year: 2015

Objective: To evaluate the validity of vaginal discharges, urethral discharges, genital rashes, and painful genital ulcers as indicators of early detection of incident herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection among pregnant women in Benin metropolis. Methods: Participants were antenatal clinic attendees of University of Benin Teaching Hospital and Central Hospital, Benin. Baseline sociodemographic, obstetric and HSV-2 serological data were collected. The HSV-2-seronegative returned for a repeat HSV-2 antibody assay before delivery date. Data on incidence of genital rashes, abnormal vaginal discharges, painful genital ulcers and urethral discharges were collected. Results: The sensitivities of abnormal vaginal discharges, genital rashes, urethral discharges and painful genital ulcers were 82.3%, 70.6%, 41.2% and 28.6% respectively; while their positive-predictive values were 53.8%, 60.0%, 58.3% and 66.7% respective. All the symptoms had >95% specificities and 95% negative-predictive values for seroincident HSV-2 infection. Conclusions: Abnormal vaginal discharge, genital rashes, urethral discharges and genital ulcers are valid indicators of seroincident HSV-2 infection and could be useful in formulation of screening tools in resource-limited settings. © 2015 Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press.

Ajayi N.A.,Federal Teaching Hospital AbakalikiEbonyi State | Ukwaja K.N.,Federal Teaching Hospital AbakalikiEbonyi State | Ifebunandu N.A.,Federal Teaching Hospital AbakalikiEbonyi State | Nnabu R.,Federal Teaching Hospital AbakalikiEbonyi State | And 3 more authors.
African Health Sciences | Year: 2014

Background: Lassa fever is a rodent-borne zoonosis that clinically manifests as an acute hemorrhagic fever. It is treated using ribavarin. Surviving Lassa fever without receiving the antiviral drug ribavarin is rare. Only few cases have been documented to date.Case Presentation: We report a case of a 59-year old female with fever who was initially thought to have acute pyelonephritis and sepsis syndrome with background malaria. Further changes in her clinical state and laboratory tests led to a suspicion of Lassa fever. However at the time her laboratory confirmatory test for Lassa fever returned, her clinical state had improved and she made full recovery without receiving ribavarin. Her close contacts showed no evidence of Lassa virus infection.Conclusion: This report adds to the literature on the natural history of Lassa fever; and that individuals may survive Lassa fever with conservative management of symptoms of the disease and its complications. © 2014 Makerere University, Medical School. All rights reserved.

Tobin E.,Institute of Lassa Fever Research and Control | Okojie P.-W.,University of Benin | Isah E.,University of Benin
Annals of African Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: A high level of community awareness and positive perception toward pulmonary TB (PTB) and its management is crucial for the success of any control strategy. This study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practice as regard to TB and its treatment. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study involving 193 persons was carried out in a rural community in Ward 5 of Etsako-West local government area of Edo state, selected through a multi-stage sampling process. Results: About 86% of respondents had heard of PTB, with a greater proportion being females (55.7%). Mean knowledge score (16.26±5.8) showed that a greater proportion (55.1%) had poor knowledge (range 0-35), with males having better (though not significant) knowledge than females (mean score 17.28±5.9 and 16.94±5.0, respectively, P=0.68). Although attitude toward TB did not influence caring for sick relatives or friends, it impeded social interactions and marriage prospects with infected persons within the community. Conclusion: Knowledge and attitude toward PTB was generally poor in this rural community. Efforts should be intensified by health authorities in the local government to raise awareness and knowledge of the disease, so as to improve social perception and early recognition of infection.

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