Institute of Landscape Development

Vienna, Austria

Institute of Landscape Development

Vienna, Austria
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Kock G.,Austrian MAB National Committee | Arnberger A.,Institute of Landscape Development
Eco.mont | Year: 2017

During the past four decades UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme and its World Network of Biosphere Reserves repeatedly went through significant adaptation and modernization processes. The Seville Strategy and the Statutory Framework (UNESCO 1996), the Madrid Action Plan (UNESCO 2008) and the MAB Strategy 2015-2025 (UNESCO 2016a), followed by the Lima Action Plan 2016-2025 (UNESCO 2016b) were important steps in modernizing the biosphere reserve concept. This article describes how the Austrian MAB National Committee has responded to this ongoing revision of UNESCO standards and worked towards a solution for the different levels of quality within the Austrian biosphere reserve network.

Kirchner M.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Schmidt J.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Kindermann G.,Federal Research and Training Center for Forests | Kulmer V.,Joanneum Research | And 10 more authors.
Ecological Economics | Year: 2015

We have developed an integrated modeling framework (IMF) to quantify indicators for ecosystem services (ES) and economic development (ED) in agricultural landscapes. Austria serves as a case study in which impacts, trade-offs, and synergies of ES and ED are assessed for different agricultural policy pathways and regional climate change scenarios. Agricultural intensification and incentivized use of provisioning ES (e.g. biomass production) lead to higher macro-economic output (e.g. GDP) but usually reduce ES related to regulation and maintenance (e.g. ecological integrity, climate regulation), as well as cultural services (landscape diversity). We revealed both synergies for certain ES (e.g. biomass production and soil organic carbon stocks) as well as large spatial deviations from the national mean across the heterogeneous agricultural landscapes in Austria. Climate change scenarios (i) lead to substantial variation in ES and ED indicators and (ii) usually amplify trade-offs by stimulating land use intensification. Our findings depict the complex relationship between different ES and ED indicators as well as the importance of considering spatial heterogeneity and regional climate change. This assessment can help to improve targeting of agri-environmental schemes in order to provide a more balanced and efficient supply of ES and to foster rural development. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Tintner J.,Institute of Wood Technology and Renewable Materials | Tintner J.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Matiasch L.,Institute of Landscape Development | Matiasch L.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | And 2 more authors.
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2016

In order to find sufficient greening measures for MSWI slag deposits, germination and juvenile plant growth on fresh as well as artificially aged municipal solid waste incineration slag were investigated for seeds of three widely used commercial test species (Phleum pratense, Lepidium sativum, and Trifolium alexandrinum) and the widespread weed Amaranthus retroflexus. Adapted Austrian standard tests comprised 2 moisture levels, 2 slag types and 4 different slag concentrations. L. sativum grew well on aged slag, whereas its juvenile growth was clearly inhibited on fresh slag. The grass P. pratense performed better on fresh than on aged slag. Under moist conditions A. retroflexus grew well on aged and on fresh slag, but was the only species with a marked germination delay throughout all mixtures of aged slag. The species with the most continuous development under all conditions was T. alexandrinum. Even on pure aged slag it grew sufficiently under moist conditions. Moderate portions of even fresh MSWI slag do not necessarily inhibit plant germination and growth; only pure slag has a negative effect throughout all species. For successful greening of MSWI slag, various substrate properties like water holding capacity and soil texture seem to be as relevant as nutrient supply, toxicity, salinity and extreme pH. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Arnberger A.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Arnberger A.,Institute of Landscape Development | Eder R.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Eder R.,Institute of Landscape Development
Landscape Research | Year: 2011

Effects of depopulation, farm family income and changes in agricultural practices, etc. have resulted in the abandonment or destruction of traditional mountainous landscapes. An image-based stated choice survey was applied to explore the effects of various landscape change processes on the preferences of a mostly urban sample (N1=410). The 128 digitally generated landscape scenarios represented various kinds and intensities of agricultural and tourism use of a historic terraced area in Austria. Latent class segmentations identified four segments, with different preferences for natural, managerial and social landscape features. While a preference for a more complex, mysterious and natural landscape was found for three segments, one segment preferred more open landscapes. The results indicate that landscape change can affect humans in different ways, and that evolutionary and cultural preference theories are useful in explaining landscape preferences. © 2011 Landscape Research Group Ltd.

Sterl P.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Eder R.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Arnberger A.,Institute of Landscape Development
Eco.mont | Year: 2010

This study investigated factors influencing the attitude of on-site ski tourers towards the ski touring management measures recently implemented by the Gesäuse National Park for two ski tours in the Johnsbach valley in order to protect capercaillie and black grouse. Most of the respondents (n = 550) were long-standing regular day visitors frequently visiting the Johnsbach valley for ski touring. The majority of them were not aware of ski touring management measures. Two thirds of those who knew about it saw it as a useful concept. The regression analysis identified attitudes towards environmental impacts of ski touring, motives for ski touring, area dependence, perceived constraints to the individual's recreational activities and past experience as factors explaining the attitude towards the concept. From our findings we derived implications for the management of protected areas.

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