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Kovac M.,Blood Transfusion Institute of Serbia | Mitic G.,Institute of Laboratory Medicine | Kovac Z.,Serbian Institute for Oncology and Radiology of Serbia
Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics | Year: 2012

What is known and Objective: Medline search disclosed 10 case reports of interactions between oral anticoagulants and miconazole oral gel, but none so far between nystatin solution and anticoagulants. We report on change in anticoagulant activity with use of different topical antifungal drugs, miconazole oral gel and vaginal suppositories, and nystatin solution. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study that included 43 patients on stable anticoagulation before the introduction of topical antifungal drugs. Miconazole oral gel was prescribed for 32 patients, nystatin solution for eight patients and miconazole vaginal suppositories for three patients. Results and Discussion: Nineteen (44·2%) of the patients reported bleeding complications and some of these were severe. Fifteen of 32 who used miconazole oral gel and four of 8 of those who used nystatin solution were affected. Before use of the antifungal drugs, the mean weekly warfarin dose in the nystatin group was 14·5 mg, and after antifungal drugs, 9 mg, P = 0·038, while the mean international normalized ratio (INR) before antifungal drugs was 2·5 (range 1·9-3·5) and afterwards it was 10·6 (range 4·5-19·3), P = 0·0001. In the miconazole oral gel group the mean weekly warfarin dose was 15·7 mg, and after 10·8 mg, P = 0·008, while the mean INR before antifungal drugs was 2·44 (range 1·92-3·18) and afterwards it was 8·8 (range 4·9-16·9), P < 0·0001. What is new and Conclusion: Miconazole oral gel and topically applied nystatin solution have equally strong effects on warfarin activity and can provoke major bleeding. Prospective evaluation of this effect is called for. However, based on our results the warfarin dose adjustment appears necessary when the anticoagulant is used concomitantly with those topical antifungals. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Hildebrandt A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Gray J.S.,University College Dublin | Hunfeld K.-P.,Institute of Laboratory Medicine
Infection | Year: 2013

Although best known as an animal disease, human babesiosis is attracting increasing attention as a worldwide emerging zoonosis. Humans are commonly infected by the bite of ixodid ticks. Rare ways of transmission are transplacental, perinatal and transfusion-associated. Infection of the human host can cause a very severe host-mediated pathology including fever, and hemolysis leading to anemia, hyperbilirubinuria, hemoglobinuria and possible organ failure. In recent years, apparently owing to increased medical awareness and better diagnostic methods, the number of reported cases in humans is rising steadily worldwide. Hitherto unknown zoonotic Babesia spp. are now being reported from geographic areas where babesiosis was not previously known to occur and the growing numbers of travelers and immunocompromised individuals suggest that the frequency of cases in Europe will also continue to rise. Our review is intended to provide clinicians with practical information on the clinical management of this rare, but potentially life-threatening zoonotic disease. It covers epidemiology, phylogeny, diagnostics and treatment of human babesiosis and the potential risk of transfusion-transmitted disease with a special focus on the European situation. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Soufi M.,University of Marburg | Rust S.,Leibniz Institute For Arterioskleroseforschung | Walter M.,Institute of Laboratory Medicine | Schaefer J.R.,University of Marburg
Gene | Year: 2013

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) results from impaired catabolism of plasma low density lipoproteins (LDL), thus leading to high cholesterol, atherosclerosis, and a high risk of premature myocardial infarction. FH is commonly caused by defects of the LDL receptor or its main ligand apoB, together mediating cellular uptake and clearance of plasma LDL. In some cases FH is inherited by mutations in the genes of PCSK9 and LDLRAP1 (ARH) in a dominant or recessive trait. The encoded proteins are required for LDL receptor stability and internalization within the LDLR pathway. To detect the underlying genetic defect in a family of Turkish descent showing unregular inheritance of severe FH, we screened the four candidate genes by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) mutation analysis. We identified different combinatory mixtures of LDLR- and LDLRAP1-gene defects as the cause for severe familial hypercholesterolemia in this family. We also show for the first time that a heterozygous LDLR mutation combined with a homozygous LDLRAP1 mutation produces a more severe hypercholesterolemia phenotype in the same family than a homozygous LDLR mutation alone. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Koves B.,South Pest Teaching Hospital | Wullt B.,Institute of Laboratory Medicine
European Urology, Supplements | Year: 2016

The severity of urinary tract infections (UTIs) varies depending on the balance between the virulence of the infecting bacterial strain and the antibacterial host defense. Bacterial virulence is determined by a complex of factors in which bacterial adherence to the uroepithelium is the most important virulence factor, in addition to the production of toxins and the formation of biofilm. In immunocompromised patients and in patients with severely dysfunctional urinary tracts, however, the importance of bacterial virulence factors to cause symptomatic infection is decreased or nullified. The antibacterial host defense in the urinary tract depends mainly on native immunity and inflammation. Specific immunity, with antigen presentation and antibody production, does not play an important role in acute UTI. Recent research has provided a deeper understanding of the inflammation process in UTI and demonstrated that the individual variation of UTI susceptibility and renal damage not only depends on urinary tract dysfunctions but is also influenced by genetic polymorphisms in innate immune receptors and signaling proteins, crucial for the innate antibacterial defenses. The identification of these molecular mechanisms in UTI pathogenesis is an important focus for future research aimed at the development of novel nonantibiotic therapies. Patient summary: The severity of urinary tract infections (UTIs) varies depending on the balance between the infecting bacterial strain and the antibacterial host defense. Bacterial virulence is determined by different virulence factors that enhance bacterial persistence and tissue damage. The susceptibility to an UTI is influenced by dysfunctions of the urinary tract and by genetic mechanisms that control the innate immune response to infections. The severity of urinary tract infections (UTIs) varies depending on the balance between the infecting bacterial strain and the antibacterial host defense. Urologists will need a more microbiology- and immunology-centered perspective to successfully manage the increasing threat of UTIs. © 2016 European Association of Urology. Source


Kurath S.,Medical University of Graz | Halwachs-Baumann G.,Institute of Laboratory Medicine | Muller W.,Medical University of Graz | Resch B.,Medical University of Graz
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2010

To analyse current data on transmission of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) via breast milk with subsequent symptomatic HCMV infection of the preterm infant and to report on long-term follow-up, a systematic literature review was performed using EMBASE, MEDLINE and CINAHL (January 1966 to December 2008) Studies were included for analysis if congenital HCMV infection was excluded and transmission via breast milk was either confirmed or strongly suspected. Twenty-six studies were included for analysis. Maternal HCMV-IgG-positivity was reported to be in the range 51.6-100% (median 81.6%), HCMV-IgG detection in breast milk in the range 67-97.2% (median 80%) and HCMV-positivity of the infants in the range 5.7-58.6%. Symptomatic HCMV disease occurred in 0-34.5% (median 3.7%) and severe sepsis-like syndrome in 0-13.8% (median 0.7%). Data on long-term outcome of preterm infants with symptomatic HCMV infection revealed a low risk for mild neurological and cognitive sequelae, without hearing impairment. Recommendations for high-risk preterm infants diverged markedly. The current data report low rates of symptomatic disease after transmission of HCMV via breast milk to the preterm infant without evidence of certain long-term sequelae. The results of our review do not support a general approach, either by avoidance or pasteurization of breast milk, in high-risk preterm infants. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Source

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