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Kanpittaya J.,Khon Kaen University | Sawanyawisuth K.,Khon Kaen University | Vannavong A.,Institute Of La Francophonie Pour La Medecine Tropicale Ifmt | Vannavong A.,Khon Kaen University | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2010

We compared the chest radiographic findings of patients with pulmonary paragonimiasis in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) with a report from Korea. The clinical and radiological characteristics of 50 confirmed Laotian pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis patients were studied between March 2003 and June 2007. In 49 patients, the chest radiographs showed abnormal findings (98%). Pulmonary parenchymal abnormalities were found in all 49 patients, whereas pleural effusion was only found in 11 patients (22%). The three most common intraparenchymal findings were multiple small cysts (90%), irregular linear densities (68%), and nodular opacities (40%). The numbers of patients who had these three findings were significantly different from the Korean report (P < 0.001). In conclusion, radiographic findings of pulmonary paragonimiasis may vary among countries. Copyright © 2010 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Source

Nguyen T.,Institute Of La Francophonie Pour La Medecine Tropicale Ifmt | Luu L.,Institute Pasteur Of Ho Chi Minh Ville | Vu T.,Institute Pasteur Of Ho Chi Minh Ville | Buisson Y.,Institute Of La Francophonie Pour La Medecine Tropicale Ifmt
Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique | Year: 2011

Dengue has emerged in Vietnam 50 years ago and since has become endemo-epidemic throughout the whole country. Each year, major epidemics of dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) hit South Vietnam during the rainy season, causing significant morbidity and mortality, especially among young children. The only preventive measure is vector control, but it is often implemented too late or indiscriminately. The aim of this study was to investigate, in the pre-epidemic stage, the existence of significant changes in vector indices, which will predict DF/DHF outbreaks. We conducted a descriptive transversal study, repeated once a month for four months (March to June) in the village of Locthuan (province Ben Tre) in the Mekong's delta. Adult mosquitoes were caught in 30 houses, and larvae were collected in water holding containers of 50 houses. The houses were randomly selected. Vector densities were calculated according to the indices recommended by WHO. Virological analysis was carried out on lots of female Aedes and larvae in order to determine viral infection rates. Catches of adult mosquitoes collected 496 specimens including 329 Aedes, 139 Culex and 28 Anopheles. Aedes aegypti was present in 63% of visited homes that is an average density of 1.8 mosquitoes per house. The increase in imaginal indices during the 4 months was not significant. The survey of breeding sites of Ae. aegypti identified 1292 water containers in which 71,569 larval specimens were collected. The values of house index, container index [CI] and Breteau index [BI] increased each month, the latter from 166 to 442. This increase was significant for CI and BI. Breeding sites were mostly intra-home, mainly consisting of large and small ceramic jars. Larval density of Ae. aegypti in the containers also increased significantly over the 4 months. It was correlated with the lack of cover and predators such as Mesocyclops spp., Micronecta spp. and larvivorous fishes. Cultivation of 15 pools of 10 adult females and 29 pools of larvae (ie 1088 specimens) of Ae. aegypti failed to isolate dengue virus. The high Stegomyia indices measured in this South Vietnamese village and their increase before the rainy season reflect a situation at high risk of epidemics but cannot predict the occurrence of an outbreak in the absence of virus isolation from mosquitoes. They justify conducting an integrated vector control throughout the year. To cite this journal: Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 104 (2011). © Socíté de pathologie exotique et Springer-Verlag France 2010. Source

Stoesser N.,University of Oxford | Xayaheuang S.,Institute Of La Francophonie Pour La Medecine Tropicale Ifmt | Xayaheuang S.,Lao Oxford Mahosot Hospital Wellcome Trust Research Unit | Vongsouvath M.,Lao Oxford Mahosot Hospital Wellcome Trust Research Unit | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2014

Objectives: Intestinal carriage constitutes an important reservoir of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, with some of the highest rates reported from Asia. Antibiotic resistance has been little studied in Laos, where some antibiotics are available without restriction, but others such as carbapenems are not available. Patients and methods: We collected stools from 397 healthy children in 12 randomly selected pre-school childcare facilities in and around Vientiane. Colonization with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLE) and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) was detected using a disc diffusion screening test and ESBLE were characterized using WGS. Risk factor data were collected by questionnaire. Results: Ninety-two children (23%) were colonized with ESBLE, mainly Escherichia coli carrying blaCTX-M and Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying blaSHV or blaCTX-M, which were frequently resistant to multiple antibiotic classes. Although residence in Vientiane Capital, foreign travel, higher maternal level of education, antibiotic use in the preceding 3 months and attending a childcare facility with a 'good' level of hygiene were all associated with ESBLE colonization on univariable analysis, a significant association remained only for antibiotic use when a stepwise approach was used with a multivariate random-effects model. WGS analysis suggested transmission in both childcare facilities and community settings. Conclusions: The high prevalence of paediatric colonization with ESBLE in Laos, one of the highest reported in Asia, is probably the result of inappropriate antibiotic use. Paediatric colonization with CPE was not identified in this study, but it is important to continue to monitor the spread of antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Laos. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. Source

Chansamouth V.,Lao Oxford Mahosot Hospital Wellcome Trust Research Unit LOMWRU | Chansamouth V.,Institute Of La Francophonie Pour La Medecine Tropicale Ifmt | Thammasack S.,Infectious Disease Center | Phetsouvanh R.,Lao Oxford Mahosot Hospital Wellcome Trust Research Unit LOMWRU | And 22 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2016

Introduction: Laos has the highest maternal mortality ratio in mainland Southeast Asia and a high incidence of infectious diseases. Globally, malaria has been the pathogen most intensively investigated in relation to impact on pregnancy, but there has been relatively little research on the aetiology and impact of other diseases. We therefore aimed to determine the causes and impact of fever in pregnant women admitted to two central hospitals in Vientiane City, Lao PDR (Laos). Materials and Methods: This hospital-based prospective study was conducted in Mahosot Hospital and the Mother and Child Hospital, Vientiane, between 2006 and 2010, with the aim to recruit 250 consenting pregnant women admitted with tympanic temperature ≥37.5°C. Primary outcome was the cause of fever and secondary outcomes were pregnancy outcomes. Specific investigations (culture, antigen, molecular and serological tests) were performed to investigate causes of fever. After discharge, all pregnant women were asked to return for review and convalescence serum on day 10–14 and were monitored until delivery. Principle findings: 250 pregnant women were recruited to this study between February 2006 and November 2010. Fifty percent were pregnant for the first time. Their median (range) gestational age on admission was 24 (4–43) weeks. The median (range) tympanic admission temperature was 38.5°C (37.5–40.5°C). Fifteen percent of patients stated that they had taken antibiotics before admission. Headache, myalgia, back pain and arthralgia were described by >60% of patients and 149 (60%) were given a laboratory diagnosis. Of those with confirmed diagnoses, 132 (53%) had a single disease and 17 (7%) had apparent mixed diseases. Among those who had a single disease, dengue fever was the most common diagnosis, followed by pyelonephritis, scrub typhus, murine typhus and typhoid. Patients were also diagnosed with tuberculosis, appendicitis, Staphylococcus aureus septicemia, leptospirosis, Japanese encephalitis virus infection and Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Severe consequences, including maternal death, miscarriage, stillbirth, low birth weight and preterm birth, were found among 28 (78%) mothers with dengue fever, rickettsioses and typhoid. Conclusion: Fevers other than malaria, such as dengue, pyelonephritis, rickettsioses and typhoid are common causes of fever during pregnancy in the Asian tropics. Further investigations of their impact in the community on maternal death, fetal loss, vertical transmission, low birth weight and preterm birth are needed. © 2016 Chansamouth et al. Source

Sichanh C.,Institute Of La Francophonie Pour La Medecine Tropicale Ifmt | Quet F.,Limoges University Hospital Center | Chanthavilay P.,Health Science University | Diendere J.,Institute Of La Francophonie Pour La Medecine Tropicale Ifmt | And 3 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2014

Background: Cervical cancer is the first female cancer in Lao PDR, a low-income country with no national screening and prevention programs for this human papillomavirus (HPV) associated pathology. HIV-infected women have a higher risk of persistent oncogenic HPV infection.The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge, awareness and attitudes about cervical cancer among Lao women attending or not an HIV treatment center, in order to understand if this attendance had offered an opportunity for information and prevention.Methods: A cross-sectional case-control survey was conducted in three provinces of Lao PDR, Vientiane, Luang Prabang and Savannakhet. Cases were 320 women aged 25 to 65, living with HIV and followed in an HIV treatment center. Controls were 320 women matched for age and place of residence, not attending an HIV treatment center.Results: Cases had a greater number of sexual partners and used condoms more often than controls. Only 36.6% of women had consulted a gynecologist (47.5% among cases and 25.6% among controls, p < 0.001) and 3.9% had benefited from at least one Pap smear screening (5.6% cases and 2.2% controls, p = 0.02). The average knowledge score was 3.5 on a 0 to 13 scale, significantly higher in cases than in controls (p < 0.0001). Despite having a lower education level and economic status, the women living with HIV had a better knowledge about cervical cancer and were more aware than the controls of the risk of developing such a cancer (35.9% vs. 8.4%, p = 0.0001). The main source of information was healthcare professionals. The main reasons for not undergoing Pap smear were the absence of symptoms and the default of medical injunction for cases, the lack of information and ignorance of screening usefulness for controls.Conclusion: In Lao PDR, routine consultation in HIV treatment centers is not enough harnessed to inform women of their high risk of developing cervical cancer, and to perform screening testing and treatment of precancerous lesions. Implementing this cost-effective strategy could be the first step toward a national prevention program for cervical cancer. © 2014 SICHANH et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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