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Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

Neuroradiology has an important place in medical imaging. One of the growing applications is dementia for precocious diagnosis, treatment and following of the patient. MRI has a prior place in these indications and helps for the diagnosis and prognosis by quantification of the disease (other article following). © 2012.

De Jaeger C.,Institute Of Jaeger | Cherin P.,Service de Medecine Interne
Medecine et Longevite | Year: 2012

Within the vascular wall, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts are surrounded by a complex and structured network of secreted macromolecules and proteins, the extracellular matrix. The extracellular matrix provides a structural framework essential for the functional properties of tissues. In each tissue, the three-dimensional organisation of the extracellular matrix molecules - elastin, collagens, proteoglycans and structural glycoproteins - synthesized during development and growth is optimal for these functions. Reciprocal interactions between matrix and cells are essential to growth, development and remodeling. In adult tissues, proteases are constitutively expressed but have a very low activity and the turnover of elastic and collagen fibers is very low. During ageing, the interaction of environmental factors (glucose, lipids, calcium...) and modifications of the biosynthesis and degradation processes lead to modifications of extracellular matrix homeostasis and consequently to alterations of tissue functionality. The extracellular matrix of old large elastic arteries undergoes several modifications. The elastic lamellae are fragmented or degraded and calcify, whereas more rigid proteins, such as collagen, accumulate and cause fibrosis. These alterations are associated with the stiffening of arteries, which results in the development of isolated systolic hypertension. © 2012.

De Jaeger C.,Institute Of Jaeger | Cherin P.,Service de Medecine Interne | Fraoucene N.,Institute Of Jaeger | Voronska E.,Institute Of Jaeger
Medecine et Longevite | Year: 2012

The problems of environment became a major concern of our societies, in particular the risk bound to the exposure in pesticides. France remains a big consumer of pesticides: third world user and first consumer in Europe. These pesticides are used in 90% by the agriculture. The presence and the obstinacy of these phytosanitary products (and or of their residues) in our grounds, groundwaters, food cycle, and finally for a certain number, in our plates, worry a big part of the scientific community. And the proofs of their harmfulness for the human health, difficult to bring to light because of the complexity of the problem, begin to accumulate. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS.

De Jaeger C.,Institute Of Jaeger | Voronska E.,Institute Of Jaeger | Fraoucene N.,Institute Of Jaeger | Cherin P.,Service de Medecine Interne
Medecine et Longevite | Year: 2012

The risks for the health of pesticides are the object of numerous debates. If the data remain controversial at the adult with the exception of lymphomas, associations are found more frequently in the cancers of the child, in particular brain tumours, leukaemia and nephroblatomes. In brain tumours, an association is frequently evoked during a professional exhibition (exposure) of the relatives (parents) at the time of the pregnancy. Diverse consequences of pesticides on the reproduction were evoked: infertility, fœtal death, prematurity, hypotrophia, congenital malformations; but the studies suffer certain ways. Pesticides can interfere with hormones (endocrine disruptors), growth factors or neurotransmitters. The study of the neurological appearances in connection with the use of pesticides seems to be established. In particular, the link between the use of pesticides and the arisen of a Parkinson's disease appears at present as likely, in view of the numerous realized works. © 2012.

Cherin P.,Service de Medecine Interne | Voronska E.,Institute Of Jaeger | Fraoucene N.,Institute Of Jaeger | de Jaeger C.,Institute Of Jaeger
Medecine et Longevite | Year: 2012

Pesticides constitute a very heterogeneous group of chemical substances adapted to the wrestling against plants and unwanted animals: weed-killers, fungicides, insecticides, acaricides, nématicides and rodenticides mainly. These phytosanitary products possess all a toxicity, of variable intensity, for the human. The acute toxicity of pesticides results from a misuse, from an accidental use of pesticides (accidents in the home) or from an often very serious voluntary poisoning. Organophosphate pesticides and carbamates are at the origin of the cases of poisonings by the most frequent pesticides. The exposure is essentially made by cutaneo-mucous and respiratory way, oral exposure would concern more the general population by accidental or deliberate ingestion of pesticides. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there is every year in the world one million grave poisonings by pesticides, at the origin of approximately 220,000 deaths a year. © 2012.

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