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Mario Paredes C.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA | Viviana Becerra V.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA | Juan Tay U.,Institute Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA | Blair M.W.,Centro Internacional Of Agriculture Tropical Ciat | Gabriel Bascur B.,Institute Of Investigaciones Agropecuarias Inia
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2010

Race Chile is an important component of the genetic structure of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The germplasm bank of the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA, contains 1200 accessions distributed mainly into two Active Working Germplasm Banks at INIA La Platina (Santiago) and at INIA Quilamapu (Chilian) and also the Germplasm Base Bank at INIA Intihuasi (La Serena). The Chilean collection possesses accessions collected throughout the country. One way to study and use the germplasm stored at the Seed Banks is the formation of a core collection. The objectives of this work were: a) To establish a common bean core collection with the germplasm collected throughout the country, and b) to evaluate its representatives based on phenotypic data and to compare with data from the whole collection. The results indicated that the Chilean base collection contained accessions belonging to the Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools and to genotypes belong to race Chile, Perú, Nueva Granada, Mesoamerica and Durango. The Chilean bean core collection consisted of 246 accessions. Comparison for several phenotypic traits data from 246 accessions from the whole and core collection indicated the genetic variation expressed for each trait in the whole collection was quite well represented in the core collection. This core collection will be very useful for further phenotypic and genetic characterization and to select accessions for the bean breeding program.

Molina-Montenegro M.A.,Católica del Norte University | Molina-Montenegro M.A.,University of La Serena | Palma-Rojas C.,University of Concepción | Alcayaga-Olivares Y.,Católica del Norte University | And 6 more authors.
Ecography | Year: 2013

Plasticity and local adaptation have been suggested as two main mechanisms that alien species use to successfully tolerate and invade broad geographic areas. In the present study, we try answer the question if the mechanism for the broad distributional range of T. officinale is for phenotypic plasticity, ecotypic adaptation or both. For this, we used individuals of T. officinale originated from seeds collected in five localities along its latitudinal distribution range in the southern-hemisphere. Seedlings were acclimated at 5 and 25°C for one month. After the acclimation period we evaluated ecophysiological and cytogenetic traits. Additionally, we assessed the fitness at each temperature by recording the seed output of individuals from different localities. Finally, we performed a manipulative experiment in order to assess the tolerance to herbivory and competitive ability between T. officinale from all origins and Hypochaeris scorzonerae a co-occurring native species. Overall, individuals of T. officinale showed high plasticity and ecotypic adaptation for all traits assessed in this study. Changes both in physiology and morphology observed in T. officinale from different origins were mostly correlated, enhancing their ecophysiological performance in temperatures similar to those of their origin. Additionally, all localities showed the same chromosome number and ploidy level. On the other hand, all individuals showed an increase the seed output at 25°C, but those from northern localities increased more. T. officinale from all origins was not significantly affected by herbivory while native showed a negative effect. On the other hand, T. officinale exerted a strong negative effect on the native species, but this former not effected significantly to the invasive T. officinale. High plasticity and local adaptation in all ecophysiological traits, seed-set and the low cytogenetic variability in T. officinale suggests that both strategies are present in this invasive plant species and are not mutually exclusive. Finally, higher tolerance to herbivory and competitive ability suggests that T. officinale could perform successfully in environments with different climatic conditions, and thus colonize and invade South-America. © 2012 The Authors.

Martinez M.E.,Institute Of Investigaciones Agropecuarias Inia | de la Barra R.,Institute Of Investigaciones Agropecuarias Inia
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2014

Chilota and Suffolk Down are the main sheep breeds used for productive purposes in Chiloe Archipelago. Compared to Suffolk Down, Chilota shows a better performance in the harsh environment of the islands as a result of its adaptative process since the introduction 500 years ago. Differences in diet selection between breeds have been described before but an accurate tool to quantify between breed differences in diet selection is needed, the n-alkane technique in combination with microhistological procedures was used. The results show that there are differences in forage selection between Chilota and Suffolk Down adult sheep grazing in naturalized grasslands of Chiloe Archipelago and that the n-alkane method in combination with microhistology can be successfully used to estimate diet selection in different sheep breeds. © 2014 Medwell Journals.

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