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Golan O.,Bar - Ilan University | Issan Y.,Bar - Ilan University | Isak A.,Bar - Ilan University | Leipziger J.,University of Aarhus | And 2 more authors.
Biochemical Pharmacology

Rationale: Extracellular nucleotides have widespread effects and various cell responses. Whereas the effect of a purine nucleotide (ATP) and a pyrimidine nucleotide (UTP) on myocardial infarction has been examined, the role of different purine and pyrimidine nucleotides and nucleosides in cardioprotection against hypoxic stress has not been reported. Objective: To investigate the role of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides and nucleosides in protective effects in cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia. Methods and results: Rat cultured cardiomyocytes were treated with various extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides, before or during hypoxic stress. The results revealed that GTP or CTP exhibit cardioprotective ability, as revealed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, by propidium iodide (PI) staining, by cell morphology, and by preserved mitochondrial activity. Pretreatment with various P2 antagonists (suramin, RB-2, or PPADS) did not abolish the cardioprotective effect of the nucleotides. Moreover, P2Y 2 -/- , P2Y 4 -/-, and P2Y 2 -/-/P2Y 4 -/- receptor knockouts mouse cardiomyocytes were significantly protected against hypoxic stress when treated with UTP. These results indicate that the protective effect is not mediated via those receptors. We found that a wide variety of triphosphate and diphosphate nucleotides (TTP, ITP, deoxyGTP, and GDP), provided significant cardioprotective effect. GMP, guanosine, and ribose phosphate provided no cardioprotective effect. Moreover, we observed that tri/di-phosphate alone assures cardioprotection. Treatment with extracellular nucleotides, or with tri/di-phosphate, administered under normoxic conditions or during hypoxic conditions, led to a decrease in reactive oxygen species production. Conclusions: Extracellular tri/di-phosphates are apparently the molecule responsible for cardioprotection against hypoxic damage, probably by preventing free radicals formation. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Hope-Roberts M.,Institute of Interdisciplinary Research | Horobin R.W.,University of Glasgow
Biotechnic and Histochemistry

Brief accounts are given of the chemical nature, and past and current biomedical applications of three dyes first synthesized by Raphael Meldola: isamine blue, Meldola's blue and naphthol green B. © 2012 The Biological Stain Commission. Source

Hope-Roberts M.,Institute of Interdisciplinary Research | Horobin R.W.,University of Glasgow | Wainwright M.,Liverpool John Moores University
Biotechnic and Histochemistry

The mechanism of selective targeting of the plasma membrane of apoptotic cells by F2N12S, a recently reported ratiometric, fluorescent small molecule probe, was analyzed using decision-rule QSAR models. Selectivity was determined by a combination of the probe's weak amphiphilicity and slow flip-flop with the increased plasma membrane fluidity of apoptotic cells. The probable chemical features required for such probes may be defined in terms of numerical structural parameters as: 3.5 < AI < ∼ 5.5; log P < 5.0; HGS > 400 (where AI, log P and HGS parameters model amphiphilicity, lipophilicity and headgroup size, respectively). When HGS is <400, compounds are initially membrane selective, but subsequently are internalized. © 2011 The Biological Stain Commission. Source

Hope-Roberts M.,Institute of Interdisciplinary Research | Wainwright M.,Liverpool John Moores University | Horobin R.W.,University of Glasgow
Biotechnic and Histochemistry

A novel technique developed in the laboratories of Bradley D. Smith and David Piwnica-Worms for imaging bacterial infections in intact living nude mice using a novel fluorescent dye, a conjugate of a NIR carbocyanine dye and two zinc(II) dipicolylamine units, allows relatively deep imaging of bacterial infection in real time. The behavior of the mice indicated good tolerance of the probe. The probe's water-octanol partition coefficient calculated by Hansch and Leo's procedure demonstrates that it is slightly lipophilic and therefore could enter mouse cells. Extant values of the physicochemical and spectroscopic parameters relevant to practical use are tabulated. © 2011 The Biological Stain Commission. Source

Relvas L.J.M.,Institute of Interdisciplinary Research | Relvas L.J.M.,Free University of Colombia | Makhoul M.,Institute of Interdisciplinary Research | Makhoul M.,Free University of Colombia | And 13 more authors.

We aimed to study the role of the nucleotide receptor P2Y2R in the development of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). EAU was induced in P2Y2+/+ and P2Y2-/- mice by immunization with IRBP peptide or by adoptive transfer of in vitro restimulated semi-purified IRBP-specific enriched T lymphocytes from spleens and lymph nodes isolated from native C57Bl/6 or P2Y2+/+ and P2Y2-/- immunized mice. Clinical and histological scores were used to grade disease severity. Splenocytes and lymph node cell phenotypes were analyzed using flow cytometry. Semi-purified lymphocytes and MACS-purified CD4+ T lymphocytes from P2Y2+/+ and P2Y2-/- immunized mice were tested for proliferation and cytokine secretion. Our data show that clinical and histological scores were significantly decreased in IRBP-immunized P2Y2-/- mice as in P2Y2-/- mice adoptively transfered with enriched T lymphocytes from C57Bl/6 IRBP-immunized mice. In parallel, naïve C57Bl/6 mice adoptively transferred with T lymphocytes from P2Y2-/- IRBP-immunized mice also showed significantly less disease. No differences in term of spleen and lymph node cell recruitment or phenotype appeared between P2Y2-/- and P2Y2+/+ immunized mice. However, once restimulated in vitro with IRBP, P2Y2-/- T cells proliferate less and secrete less cytokines than the P2Y2+/+ one. We further found that antigen-presenting cells of P2Y2-/- immunized mice were responsible for this proliferation defect. Together our data show that P2Y2-/- mice are less susceptible to mount an autoimmune response against IRBP. Those results are in accordance with the danger model, which makes a link between autoreactive lymphocyte activation, cell migration and the release of danger signals such as extracellular nucleotides. © 2015 Relvas et al. Source

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