Schulz K.S.,Institute of Molecular Virology and Cell Biology |
Klupp B.G.,Institute of Molecular Virology and Cell Biology |
Granzow H.,Institute of Infectology |
Passvogel L.,Institute of Molecular Virology and Cell Biology |
Mettenleiter T.C.,Institute of Molecular Virology and Cell Biology
Virus Research | Year: 2015
Herpesvirus replication takes place in the nucleus and in the cytosol. After entering the cell, nucleocapsids are transported to nuclear pores where viral DNA is released into the nucleus. After gene expression and DNA replication new nucleocapsids are assembled which have to exit the nucleus for virion formation in the cytosol. Since nuclear pores are not wide enough to allow passage of the nucleocapsid, nuclear egress occurs by vesicle-mediated transport through the nuclear envelope. To this end, nucleocapsids bud at the inner nuclear membrane (INM) recruiting a primary envelope which then fuses with the outer nuclear membrane (ONM). In the absence of this regulated nuclear egress, mutants of the alphaherpesvirus pseudorabies virus have been described that escape from the nucleus after virus-induced nuclear envelope breakdown. Here we review these exit pathways and demonstrate that both can occur simultaneously under appropriate conditions. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
Kampen H.,Institute of Infectology |
Medlock J.M.,Public Health England |
Vaux A.G.C.,Public Health England |
Koenraadt C.J.M.,Wageningen University |
And 6 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2015
The recent emergence in Europe of invasive mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease associated with both invasive and native mosquito species has prompted intensified mosquito vector research in most European countries. Central to the efforts are mosquito monitoring and surveillance activities in order to assess the current species occurrence, distribution and, when possible, abundance, in order to permit the early detection of invasive species and the spread of competent vectors. As active mosquito collection, e.g. by trapping adults, dipping preimaginal developmental stages or ovitrapping, is usually cost-, time- and labour-intensive and can cover only small parts of a country, passive data collection approaches are gradually being integrated into monitoring programmes. Thus, scientists in several EU member states have recently initiated programmes for mosquito data collection and analysis that make use of sources other than targeted mosquito collection. While some of them extract mosquito distribution data from zoological databases established in other contexts, community-based approaches built upon the recognition, reporting, collection and submission of mosquito specimens by citizens are becoming more and more popular and increasingly support scientific research. Based on such reports and submissions, new populations, extended or new distribution areas and temporal activity patterns of invasive and native mosquito species were found. In all cases, extensive media work and communication with the participating individuals or groups was fundamental for success. The presented projects demonstrate that passive approaches are powerful tools to survey the mosquito fauna in order to supplement active mosquito surveillance strategies and render them more focused. Their ability to continuously produce biological data permits the early recognition of changes in the mosquito fauna that may have an impact on biting nuisance and the risk of pathogen transmission associated with mosquitoes. International coordination to explore synergies and increase efficiency of passive surveillance programmes across borders needs to be established. © 2015 Kampen et al.; licensee BioMed Central.
Ramp K.,Institute of Molecular Biology |
Veits J.,Institute of Molecular Biology |
Deckers D.,Institute of Infectology |
Rudolf M.,Institute of Diagnostic Virology |
And 3 more authors.
Avian Diseases | Year: 2011
To analyze the contribution of neuraminidase (NA) toward protection against avian influenza virus (AIV) infection, three different recombinant Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) expressing hemagglutinin (HA) or NA, or both, of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) were generated. The lentogenic NDV Clone 30 was used as backbone for the insertion of HA of HPAIV strain A/chicken/Vietnam/P41/05 (H5N1) and NA of HPAIV strain A/duck/Vietnam/TG24-01/05 (H5N1). The HA was inserted between the genes encoding NDV phosphoprotein (P) and matrixprotein (M), and the NA was inserted between the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein (HN) genes, resulting in NDVH5VmPMN1FHN. Two additional recombinants were constructed carrying the HA gene between the NDV P and M genes (NDVH5VmPM) or the NA between F and HN (NDVN1FHN). All recombinants replicated well and stably expressed the HA gene, the NA gene, or both. Chickens immunized with NDVH5VmPMN1FHN or NDVH5VmPM were protected against two different HPAIV H5N1 and also against HPAIV H5N2. In contrast, immunization of chickens with NDVN1FHN induced NDV- and AIV N1specific antibodies but did not protect the animals against a lethal dose of HPAIV H5N1. Furthermore, expression of AIV N1, in addition to AIV H5 by NDV, did not increase protection against HPAIV H5N1. © American Association of Avian Pathologists.
Vahlenkamp T.W.,Institute of Molecular Biology |
Teifke J.P.,Institute of Infectology |
Harder T.C.,Institute of Diagnostic Virology |
Beer M.,Institute of Diagnostic Virology |
Mettenleiter T.C.,Institute of Molecular Biology
Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses | Year: 2010
Please cite this paper as: Vahlenkamp et al. (2010) Systemic influenza virus H5N1 infection in cats after gastrointestinal exposure. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 4(6), 379-386. Background Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 infections in felids have been reported in several countries. Feeding on infected birds has been suggested as potential source of infection. Objectives The study aimed to verify gastrointestinal infection as possible portal of entry for HPAIV H5N1 in cats. Methods Four cats were infected oculo-nasopharyngeally with 106 50% egg infectious dose (EID50) of HPAIV H5N1 A/cat/Germany/R606/2006. Two cats were infected intravenously with 106 EID50 and two cats were inoculated orally with 107 EID50 HPAIV embedded in gelatine capsules to mimic gastrointestinal exposure and to avoid virus contact to oropharyngeal or respiratory tissues. Cats were monitored for 6 days by physical examination, virus excretion, and peripheral blood lymphocyte counts. Blood chemical parameters (including AST, ALT, CPK, and TBIL) and viral excretion using pharyngeal and rectal swabs were analyzed. Results Infected cats showed elevated body temperature up to 41·3°C starting from day 1 or 2 p.i. All infected cats excreted virus in pharyngeal swabs within 2days p.i. co-inciding with the development of clinical signs (anorexia, depression, and labored breathing) irrespective of the infection route. Virus dissemination occurred through cell-free and cell-associated viremia. Infected cats developed lymphopenia, hepatic necrosis, pneumonia, and significantly elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), and TBIL. Conclusions The experiments show that the gastrointestinal tract can serve as portal for the entry of HPAIV H5N1 into cats. Infection routes used did not influence viral tissue tropism and course of disease. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Vina-Rodriguez A.,Institute for Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases |
Schlosser J.,Institute for Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases |
Becher D.,Micromun GmbH Greifswald |
Kaden V.,Institute of Infectology |
And 2 more authors.
Viruses | Year: 2015
An increasing number of indigenous cases of hepatitis E caused by genotype 3 viruses (HEV-3) have been diagnosed all around the word, particularly in industrialized countries. Hepatitis E is a zoonotic disease and accumulating evidence indicates that domestic pigs and wild boars are the main reservoirs of HEV-3. A detailed analysis of HEV-3 subtypes could help to determine the interplay of human activity, the role of animals as reservoirs and cross species transmission. Although complete genome sequences are most appropriate for HEV subtype determination, in most cases only partial genomic sequences are available. We therefore carried out a subtype classification analysis, which uses regions from all three open reading frames of the genome. Using this approach, more than 1000 published HEV-3 isolates were subtyped. Newly recovered HEV partial sequences from hunted German wild boars were also included in this study. These sequences were assigned to genotype 3 and clustered within subtype 3a, 3i and, unexpectedly, one of them within the subtype 3b, a first non-human report of this subtype in Europe. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.