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Escobedo A.A.,Academic Paediatric Hospital Pedro Borras | Cimerman S.,Institute of Infectious Diseases Emilio Ribas | Chacin-Bonilla L.,Institute of Clinical Investigations
Acta Tropica | Year: 2014

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are often discussed in the context of syphilis, gonorrhea, herpes, chlamydiasis and AIDS. However, since the past 30 years of the last century, epidemiology and natural history studies have led to improved understanding of giardiasis as a STI, as a result of oral-anal sexual contact. Studies suggest that Giardia is an increasingly recognized infection that may be underdiagnosed under the STI context. Health care providers should maintain a high index of suspicion for Giardia, obtain suitable diagnostic tests to identify and screen those at high risk for this infection, institute appropriate therapy, counsel patients regarding treatment compliance, follow-up, encourage partner notification and teach strategies for preventing the transmission of this disease, including the discussion of the risk of enteric infections after oral-anal sexual contact. We summarize some data concerning the research and clinical literature on Giardia infection as a STI and identify the specific recommendations for control of giardiasis as STI that available evidence indicates can reduce its transmission. © 2014.

Escobedo A.A.,Academic Paediatric Hospital Pedro Borras | Franco R.M.B.,University of Campinas | Hanevik K.,University of Bergen | Hanevik K.,National Center for Tropical Infectious Diseases | And 3 more authors.
Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets | Year: 2010

Although giardiasis has been a threat to mankind for thousands of years, this protozoan infection was, until recently, relatively neglected. Giardia duodenalis is recognised as a major cause of parasite-induced diarrhoea in humans and animals, and is currently an important public health problem, placing a heavy burden on both diagnostic and treatment services at health care institutions, mostly in developing countries, but also in highly developed countries. Steady progress in recent years, using a combination of molecular, immunological, and clinical approaches, has substantially increased our understanding of Giardia and important aspects of the clinical manifestations that it causes. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the extent of Giardia infection, the implications of water and food in Giardia transmission, new aspects regarding clinical diagnosis and environmental detection, treatment, and some approaches towards prevention and control. A number of future research priorities are also presented. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

de Oliveira R.B.,Institute Infectologia Emilio Ribas | Atobe J.H.,Institute Infectologia Emilio Ribas | Souza S.A.,Institute Infectologia Emilio Ribas | de Castro Lima Santos D.W.,Institute Infectologia Emilio Ribas | And 2 more authors.
Mycopathologia | Year: 2014

Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) represent one of the main causes of morbimortality in immunocompromised patients. Pneumocystosis, cryptococcosis and histoplasmosis are the most frequently occurring IFIs in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Fungi, such as Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp., may cause severe diseases during the course of an HIV infection. Following the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy, there has been a marked reduction of opportunistic fungal infections, which today is 20-25 % of the number of infections observed in the mid-1990s. This study is an observational and retrospective study aimed at the characterising IFI incidence and describing the epidemiology, clinical diagnostic and therapeutic features and denouement in HIV/AIDS patients. In HIV/AIDS patients, the IFI incidence is 54.3/1,000 hospitalisation/year, with a lethality of 37.7 %. Cryptococcosis represents the main opportunistic IFI in the population, followed by histoplasmosis. Nosocomial pathogenic yeast infections are caused principally by Candida spp., with a higher candidemia incidence at our institution compared to other Brazilian centres. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Santos D.W.C.L.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | Santos D.W.C.L.,Institute of Infectious Diseases Emilio Ribas | Padovan A.C.B.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | Melo A.S.A.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | And 6 more authors.
Mycopathologia | Year: 2013

Subcutaneous infections caused by melanised fungi have been increasingly reported among transplant patients, and these infections have the potential for blood and visceral dissemination. Some moulds, such as Mycelia sterilia, cannot grow and sporulate on different media, making their identification impossible by conventional methods. The fast and accurate identification of melanised fungi at the species level is important because species may have tropism to different organs and different susceptibilities to antifungal agents. Molecular tools have been reported to be helpful for the species identification of non-sporulating moulds. Our goal was to identify the species of M. sterilia isolates obtained from clinical samples of transplant patients using sequences of ITS and the D1/D2 regions of rDNA. Clinical samples were obtained from eight kidney transplant recipients who developed subcutaneous fungal infections. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology and conventional culture. Histopathology showed septated, melanised hyphae, and the cultures identified non-sporulating fungi. Therefore, the DNA from the M. sterilia isolates was subjected to PCR amplification and sequencing of the ITS and D1/D2 regions. Genus/species identification was obtained by comparison with gene banks. We obtained the following identifications: Alternaria sp. (2), Cochliobolus lunatus/Curvularia lunata (2), Cochliobolus hawaiiensis/Bipolaris hawaiiensis (1), Ochroconis sp. (1), Medicocopsis romeroi/Pyrenochaeta romeroi (1) and Nigrograna mackinnonii/Pyrenochaeta mackinnonii (1). © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Escobedo A.A.,Academic Paediatric Hospital Pedro Borras | Escobedo A.A.,Aberdeen Group | Escobedo A.A.,Working Group on Clinical Parasitology | Hanevik K.,University of Bergen | And 3 more authors.
Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy | Year: 2014

Advances in our understanding of chronic giardiasis (CG) may improve our care of patients in this stage of the disease. This review proposes a new concept of CG and highlights the recent advances in our understanding and management of this condition. According to this review, management requires, initially, an accurate diagnosis, which may exclude several conditions that can mimic CG. Optimal treatment requires a tailored approach which includes the recognition of the known modifiable causes of this health condition, assessment of symptoms and potential complications, their treatment utilizing, if necessary, a multidisciplinary team, and an ongoing monitoring for the effect of therapy-weighing the efficacy of individual drugs-all of these together may lead to a successful treatment of CG. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.

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