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Liu K.-Y.,Tongzhou Institute of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology | Liu K.-Y.,Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology | Yang W.-H.,Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology | Dong X.-K.,Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery | Year: 2016

Background: Lytic mycobacteriophage D29 has the potential for tuberculosis treatment including multidrug-resistant strains. The aims of this study are to investigate deposition and distribution of aerosolized phage D29 particles in naive Balb/C mice, together with pharmacokinetics and evaluation of acute lung injury. Methods: Pharmacokinetics and BALF (bronchoalveolar lavage fluids) were analyzed after administration of phage D29 aerosols by endotracheal route using Penn-century aerosolizer; Collison 6-jet and Spinning top aerosol nebulizers (STAG) were used to generate phage aerosols with different particle size distributions in nose-only inhalation experiments. After exposure, deposited amounts of phage D29 particles in respiratory tracts were measured, and deposition efficiencies were calculated. A typical path deposition model for mice was developed, and then comparisons were made between predictions and experimentally measured results. Results: Approximately 10% of aerosolized phages D29 reached lung of mouse for pulmonary delivery, and were completely eliminated until 72 h after administration. In contrast, about 0.1% of intraperitoneal injected phages reached the lung, and were almost eliminated at 12 h time point. The inflammation was hardly observed in lung according to the results of BALF analysis. The CMADs (count median aerodynamic diameters) of generated aerosol by Collison and STAG nebulizer were 0.8 μm and 1.5 μm, respectively. After nose-only exposure, measured deposition efficiencies in whole respiratory tract for 0.8 and 1.5 μm phage particles were below 1% and 10%, respectively. Predictions of the computer deposition model compared fairly well with experimentally measured results. Conclusions: This is the first systematic study of phage D29 aerosol respiratory challenge in laboratory animals. It provides evidence that aerosol delivery of phage D29 is an effective way for treating pulmonary infections caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This research will also provide important data for future inhalation experiments. © Copyright 2016, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

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